|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Baker, P., Camp, R., Collins, M., Fretz, S., Gorresen, M., Pratt, T., Swinnerton, K., VanderWerf, E. & Woodworth, B.
||Benstead, P., Bird, J., Butchart, S., Capper, D., Derhé, M., Harding, M., Isherwood, I., Stattersfield, A. & Symes, A.
This species has been listed as Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) because, of three known individuals in 1998, one died in captivity in 2004 and the remaining two individuals have not been seen since 2003 and 2004. It may be extinct, but continuing surveys in all areas of potential habitat are needed to confirm that no other individuals survive. If any do still survive, the total population must be tiny.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2012 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2009 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2008 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2007 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2004 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2000 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 1996 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 1994 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 1988 – Threatened (T)
|Range Description:||Melamprosops phaeosoma is endemic to Maui in the Hawaiian Islands (USA), where it was discovered in 1973 in the Ko`olau Forest Reserve on the north-eastern flanks of Haleakala (Pratt et al. 1997, Rosa et al. 1998), and estimated to number fewer than 200 birds. During 1975-1985, there was a rapid decline in density in the upper Hanawi watershed (Mountainspring et al. 1990), the last area from which it was known. In 1995, only five to seven birds were known but, by mid-1997, only three individuals could be found (two male, one possibly female), each with distinct home ranges in Hanawi Natural Area Reserve (NAR) and the immediately adjacent Haleakala National Park (Baker 2000). One of three known individuals was captured in September 2004 but died on 28 November 2004 (K. Swinnerton in litt. 2006, VanderWerf et al. 2006). The two other individuals may both have been male, but neither have been seen since 2003 and 2004 (K. Swinnerton in litt. 2006) and are likely to have now died (if alive, both birds would be a minimum of 12 years old in 2008 [K. Swinnerton in litt. 2006]). No other individuals have been located since 1998 despite almost constant presence of researchers in the field in recent years (K. Swinnerton in litt. 2006), but it is still possible, albeit unlikely, that a few unlocated individuals may exist in the wild (VanderWerf et al. 2006). |
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||3|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Yes||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No||♦ Lower elevation limit (metres):||1400|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||2100|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Conservation Actions Underway
In 1986, the 30 km2 Hanawi NAR was created to protect this species and, during 1990-1997, all feral pigs were systematically eradicated from three fenced areas (Anderson and Stone 1993, Pratt et al. 1997, Reilly 1998, Rosa et al. 1998). An environmental assessment has been produced and a management plan proposed (USFWS and Hawai`i DLNR 1999, Groombridge et al. 2004). Two wild birds were briefly united when one was caught and moved into the home range of another. However, after just one day the translocated bird had returned to its own territory (Groombridge et al. 2004). One of three known individuals was captured in September 2004 but died in captivity on 28 November 2004 (K. Swinnerton in litt. 2006). The 2006 East Maui Forest Bird Survey covered 216 stations on 8 transects within Po'ouli habitat, and failed to locate any birds. In 2006, the East Maui Watershed Partnership (EMWP) completed a c. 5000 ha fenced unit adjacent to and east of Hanawi NAR incorporating the Ko'olau Forest Preserve, Haiku Uka and Waikamoi Forest Preserve, between about 1,000m and 2,400 m elevation. Feral pig control is the next phase, some of which has already been implemented by The Nature Conservancy in the Waikamoi Preserve portion. Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey all remaining `ohi`a forest on East Maui (P. Baker in litt. 1999). Extend the new EMWP lower-elevation fence line west and below the existing Hanawi NAR fence-line to help prevent the spread of invasive weeds and mosquitoes into upper elevation forests and abet the restoration of more lower elevation habitat (Reilly 1998). Intensify habitat management in areas adjacent to Hanawi NAR including removal of feral pigs from the new fenced unit.