Vestiaria coccinea 

Scope: Global

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Fringillidae

Scientific Name: Vestiaria coccinea
Species Authority: (Forster, 1780)
Common Name(s):
English Iiwi, 'I'iwi

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(i,ii,iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Symes, A. & Butchart, S.
Contributor(s): Camp, R., Donaldson, P., Fretz, J., Lepson, J., Pratt, H., Roberts, P., VanderWerf, E. & Hart, P.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Derhé, M., O'Brien, A., Stuart, T., Taylor, J.
This species is listed as Vulnerable because it has a small and contracting range and, although it is still relatively abundant, surveys have shown that it is undergoing a continuing population decline.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Vestiaria coccinea formerly occurred on all the main islands in the Hawaiian Archipelago (USA) but it is now extinct on Lana'i and relict populations (probably fewer than 50 individuals [J. Lepson in litt. 2000]) remain on O`ahu and Moloka`i (Scott et al. 1986, P. Donaldson in litt. 1999). Recent population estimates are: c.385,000 individuals, excluding birds on O`ahu, during 1976-1983 (Scott et al. 1986) and more than 350,000 individuals in the early 1990s following recent declines in several populations (Jacobi and Atikinson 1995). There is now evidence from monitoring (much of it unpublished) that the species has declined throughout the Hawaiian islands, except on windward Mau`i and at Hakalau, Hawai`i, where the populations appear to be stable (D. Pratt in litt. 2007). The numbers of individuals detected during monitoring have fallen at both mid and low elevations (D. Pratt in litt. 2007). The apparent decline appears to have been most pronounced in western Hawai`i, although there is little quantitative data for this area (D. Pratt in litt. 2007).

Countries occurrence:
United States
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:19800
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):YesExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Number of Locations:6Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:NoLower elevation limit (metres):1300
Upper elevation limit (metres):1900
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:An estimate of more than 350,000 individuals was made in the early 1990s (Jacobi and Atikinson 1995).

Trend Justification:  The population is declining (figures still to be published), owing to avian malaria and other factors.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation:100

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species was formerly found in forests at any elevation, and still occurs in a variety of native, disturbed and unnatural habitats from 300 to 2,900 m (Berger 1972, Scott et al. 1986). The greatest densities are found at 1,300-1,900 m, and low elevation populations may be sustained primarily by dispersal from mid-elevation populations (Scott et al. 1986).

Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):4.9
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The exact causes for the decline are uncertain, although it is known that the species is very susceptible to avian malaria, carried at low elevations by introduced mosquitos (Jacobi and Atikinson 1995, D. Pratt in litt. 2007). Other factors which are likely to be contributing to its decline include habitat degradation and predation by introduced mammals such as cattle, pigs, cats and rats.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
The species is the subject of population trend analysis and detailed studies into the effects of avian malaria by the U.S. Geological Survey Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Centre.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Complete assessment of current population trends. Study the factors driving the decline. Attempt to mitigate against the decline.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Vestiaria coccinea. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22720844A39854881. . Downloaded on 25 October 2016.
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