||Drepanis coccinea (Forster, 1781)
Vestiaria coccinea (Forster, 1780)
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Camp, R., Donaldson, P., Fretz, J., Lepson, J., Pratt, H., Roberts, P., VanderWerf, E., Hart, P., Costantini, M. & Crampton, L.
||Benstead, P., Derhé, M., O'Brien, A., Stuart, T., Taylor, J. & North, A.
This species is listed as Vulnerable because it has a small and contracting range and, although it is still relatively abundant, surveys have shown that it is undergoing a continuing population decline.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2012 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2008 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2004 – Near Threatened (NT)
- 2000 – Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
- 1994 – Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
- 1988 – Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
|Range Description:||Vestiaria coccinea formerly occurred on all the main islands in the Hawaiian Archipelago (USA) but it is now extinct on Lana'i and relict populations (probably fewer than 50 individuals [J. Lepson in litt. 2000]) remain on O`ahu and Moloka`i (Scott et al. 1986, P. Donaldson in litt. 1999). Recent population estimates are: c.385,000 individuals, excluding birds on O`ahu, during 1976-1983 (Scott et al. 1986) and more than 350,000 individuals in the early 1990s following recent declines in several populations (Jacobi and Atikinson 1995). There is now evidence from monitoring (much of it unpublished) that the species has declined throughout the Hawaiian islands, except on windward Mau`i and at Hakalau, Hawai`i, where the populations appear to be stable (D. Pratt in litt. 2007). The numbers of individuals detected during monitoring have fallen at both mid and low elevations (D. Pratt in litt. 2007). The apparent decline appears to have been most pronounced in western Hawai`i, and on Kaua’i where the population has declined by 86% (D. Pratt in litt. 2007, Paxton et al. in press). Habitat modeling predicts that the species will lose 59.9% of its range across Hawai’I, and 100% of its range on Kaua’i (Fortini et al. 2015). |
United States (Hawaiian Is.)
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||19800|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Yes||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Number of Locations:||6||♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No||♦ Lower elevation limit (metres):||1300|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||1900|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|