||Paroreomyza maculata (Cabanis, 1850)
||Oahu Alauahio, O'ahu 'Alauahio, Oahu Creeper
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
||11 cm. Small, straight-billed, warbler-like passerine. Male yellow below, olive-green above, with dark lores fading into olive eye-stripe, and distinct yellow forehead and superciliary. Female greenish-grey above, pale yellowish-white below, with two prominent, pale wing-bars, pale lores and forehead, and dark eye-stripe. Similar spp. Both sexes of O'ahu `Amakihi Hemignathus flavus have dark forehead, curved bills, and no pale superciliary. Introduced Japanese White-eye Zosterops japonicus has bold white eye-ring. Voice Song unknown. Call a loud cherk.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Camp, R., Fretz, S., Gorresen, M., Lepson, J., Nelson, J., VanderWerf, E. & Woodworth, B.
||Benstead, P., Bird, J., Butchart, S., Derhé, M., Isherwood, I., Stattersfield, A., Stuart, T. & Symes, A.
The last well-documented observation of this species was in 1985, and recent searches specifically for the species have failed. It may have been driven extinct by disease spread by introduced mosquitoes. However, it cannot yet be presumed to be Extinct until all areas of remaining habitat have been thoroughly searched. Any remaining population is likely to be tiny, and for these reasons it is treated as Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct).
|Date last seen:
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2012 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2009 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2008 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2004 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2000 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 1996 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 1994 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 1988 – Threatened (T)
|Range Description:||Paroreomyza maculata is endemic to O`ahu in the Hawaiian Islands (USA), where fossil evidence indicates that it once occurred in the lowlands (Olson and James 1982). In the past few decades, there have only been a few confirmed sightings, with several of these from the area around North Halawa Valley, Ko`olau range (Pratt 1993). However, many recent records are viewed with doubt because of its close similarity with Hemignathus flavus. The last well-documented observation was of two birds on 12 December 1985 on Poamoho Trail during the Waipi`o Christmas Bird Count (Bremer 1986); the last specimen was taken in 1968 and some consider this the last definitive record (Roberts et al. 2010). There have been several reports from different areas since, but details of the observations have been inconclusive and the birds were never relocated. However, it cannot yet be presumed to be Extinct until further surveys have confirmed that there is no reasonable doubt that the last individual has died. If any population remains, it is likely to be tiny. |
United States (Hawaiian Is.)
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||80|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Number of Locations:||1||♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No||♦ Lower elevation limit (metres):||300|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||650|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|