||Hawaii Creeper, Hawai'i Creeper
||11 cm. Inconspicuous bark-picker with conical, very slightly downcurved bill. Adults dull grey-green, paler below with white chin and throat, pale grey bill, and dark grey mask from base of bill to behind eye. Juvenile similar but with pale face and white superciliary. Similar spp. Hawai`i `Amakihi Hemignathus virens female and juvenile similar, but throat never white, darker bill and narrower, more curved, dark lores. Voice Song a rattling, descending trill. Call an upslurred sweet. Juveniles following adults utter chatter of irregularly spaced notes whi-whit, whi-whi-whit etc. Hints Still found in most high-elevation native forests but easily overlooked. Joins mixed-species flocks in late summer and autumn.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Camp, R., Fretz, S., Gorresen, M., Lepson, J., Pratt, T., Roberts, P., VanderWerf, E. & Woodworth, B.
||Benstead, P., Derhé, M., Harding, M., Isherwood, I., Stattersfield, A., Stuart, T., Taylor, J.
This species is Endangered owing to its very small, severely fragmented and contracting range, where habitat loss and degradation continues owing to feral ungulates and pigs. It may be affected by diseases carried by introduced mosquitoes and has recently disappeared from one area and is declining elsewhere.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2012 – Endangered (EN) –
- 2008 – Endangered (EN) –
- 2004 – Endangered (EN) –
- 2000 – Endangered (EN) –
- 1996 – Endangered (EN) –
- 1994 – Endangered (EN) –
- 1988 – Near Threatened (NT) –
|Range Description:||Oreomystis mana is endemic to Hawai`i in the Hawaiian Islands (USA), where it was formerly widespread, but now occurs as three disjunct populations. Surveys in 1976-1983 estimated the population at c.12,500 individuals with 2,100 in Kau, 10,000 in Hamakua, 75 in central Kona, and 200 on north-west Hualalai (Scott et al. 1986). The small Hualalai population has since disappeared (E. VanderWerf in litt. 1999), the low elevation (700 m) Hamakua population may have disappeared (or perhaps is just seasonal there [J. Lepson in litt. 2000]), and the two other smaller populations are thought to be declining (E. VanderWerf in litt. 1999). The Kau population still occupies the extent of range recorded in the 1970s, but it has contracted from higher elevations (T. Pratt in litt. 2007), and the species appears to have declined between 1977 and 2003 in some parts of the Central Windward region (Gorresen et al. 2005). |
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||700|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Yes||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Number of Locations:||3||♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No||♦ Lower elevation limit (metres):||1500|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||1900|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Surveys in 1976-1983 estimated the population at c.12,500 individuals, however this number has since declined overall (E. VanderWerf in litt. 1999). The population is therefore estimated in the range 2,500-9,999 mature individuals. This equates to 3,750-14,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.|
Trend Justification: Since surveys in 1976-1983, the small Hualalai population has disappeared (E. VanderWerf in litt. 1999), the low elevation Hamakua population may have disappeared (or perhaps is just seasonal there; J. Lepson in litt. 2000), and the two other smaller populations are thought to be declining (E. VanderWerf in litt. 1999). In addition, survey results in the Central Windward region from 1977 to 2003 show apparent declines in some parts of the region (Gorresen et al. 2005).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|♦ Number of mature individuals:||2500-9999||♦ Continuing decline of mature individuals:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations:||No||♦ Population severely fragmented:||Yes|
|♦ No. of subpopulations:||3||♦ Continuing decline in subpopulations:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:||No||♦ All individuals in one subpopulation:||No|