Telespyza ultima ssp. ultima Bryan, 1917 — Collar and Andrew (1988)
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
||17 cm. Medium-sized finch. Male has yellow head and breast, blue-grey back with tinge of yellow in centre, dark wings and tail with yellow-edged feathers, yellowish-white underparts. Female and juvenile yellow heavily streaked with dark brown on back, head, and breast. Voice Song lively and complex, somewhat canary-like. Call a loud chirp.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Baker, H.C., Baker, P.E., Camp, R., Conant, S., Fretz, S., Lepson, J., Morin, M. & VanderWerf, E.
||Benstead, P., Bird, J., Derhé, M., Isherwood, I., Stuart, T. & Symes, A.
This species is listed as Critically Endangered because it has an extremely small range, restricted to one island, where the population exhibits marked population fluctuations, probably owing to climatic events. The accidental introduction of mammalian predators, non-native pest plants, insects or an avian disease, or a stochastic event such as a hurricane could rapidly bring about its extinction.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2013 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2012 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2009 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2008 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2004 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2000 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 1996 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1994 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1988 – Threatened (T)
|Range Description:||Telespiza ultima once occurred at least on the island of Molokai in the Main Hawaiian Islands, but was extirpated in prehistory probably by a combination of predation by introduced mammals and habitat loss (Morin and Conant 2002). Today, this species is restricted to the steep, rocky island of Nihoa in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (USA) (Berger 1972, Morin et al. 1997). Numbers fluctuate (James and Olson 1991, Morin and Conant 2002), although some variation may be due to differences in survey methods and time of year. Numbers on Nihoa have ranged from 6,686 in 1968 to 946 in 1987 (James and Olson 1991, Morin and Conant 2002). The most recent population estimate based on surveys in 2012 is 4,475 (±909, 95% CI) individuals (VanderWerf 2012), which very roughly equates to 3,000 (2,400-3,600) mature individuals.|
United States (Hawaiian Is.)
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||2|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Number of Locations:||1||♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||VanderWerf (2012) estimated 4,475 ±909 birds, which very roughly equates to 3,000 (2,400-3,600) mature individuals. This is larger than the previous estimate of 1,400-2,400 mature individuals, which was based on an estimate of 2807 ±744 (95% CI) individuals in March 2007.|
Trend Justification: The species's numbers are believed to have declined over the period 1967-1996 but fluctuated markedly during that time (Morin and Conant 2002). The population size appeared to be fairly stable from 2009-2011 at 2,400-2,900 birds (VanderWerf et al. 2011), but the 2012 estimate was substantially higher (VanderWerf 2012). Fluctuating numbers and large errors associated with estimates have made it difficult to determine the population trend.
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|♦ Number of mature individuals:||2400-3600||♦ Continuing decline of mature individuals:||No|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations:||Yes||♦ Population severely fragmented:||No|
|♦ No. of subpopulations:||1||♦ Continuing decline in subpopulations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:||No||♦ All individuals in one subpopulation:||Yes|
|♦ No. of individuals in largest subpopulation:||100|