Pinicola enucleator 

Scope: Global
Language: English

Translate page into:

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Fringillidae

Scientific Name: Pinicola enucleator (Linnaeus, 1758)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Pine Grosbeak
Taxonomic Source(s): Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J.
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Countries occurrence:
Canada; China; Finland; Japan; Kazakhstan; Latvia; Mongolia; Norway; Russian Federation (Central Asian Russia, Eastern Asian Russia, European Russia); Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Slovakia; Sweden; United States
Austria; Belgium; Bermuda; Czech Republic; Denmark; France; Germany; Greenland; Hungary; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Montenegro; Netherlands; Poland; Serbia; Switzerland; Ukraine; United Kingdom
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:52300000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The global population is estimated to number > c.4,000,000 individuals (Rich et al. 2004), while national population estimates include: < c.1,000 wintering individuals in China, c.100-10,000 breeding pairs in Japan and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs in Russia (Brazil 2009). The European population is estimated at 92,300-214,000 pairs, which equates to 185,000-428,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 5% of the global range.


Trend Justification:  This species has undergone a large and statistically significant decrease over the last 40 years in North America (-72.5% decline over 40 years, equating to a -27.6% decline per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species inhabits lowland, lower montane and subarctic conifer forests and woods, including larch (Larix), spruce (Picea), cedar (Cedrus) and fir (Abies). It is also found along the tree-line of northern taiga. It occupies mixed deciduous and conifer, in light or open forest, often along forest edge, on hillsides, in clearings and in damp or marshy areas. In the non-breeding season more widely found in deciduous woods, willow thickets and copses in valleys and woodland patches at edges of cultivation, including orchards, as well as mixed scrub, parks and suburban gardens.

It breeds from May to July. The nest is a deep untidy or loose cup built mostly of juniper, spruce, birch or pine twigs and occasionally with plant fibres, pine needles, grass, lichen filaments, moss, animal hair and feathers. It is usually placed two to six metres from the ground close to or against the trunk of a tree, in pine, spruce, juniper or birch, and often well hidden in densest part of the tree. Clutches are three or four. It feeds principally on seeds, buds, shoots and small fruits and takes some invertebrates. The species is resident and a partial migrant and is occasionally irruptive (Clement 2016).
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):4.2
Movement patterns:Full Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In central Finland, declines during the latter part of 20th century may be due to large-scale deforestation (Clement 2016). The species may also be threatened by changes in habitats driven by climate change (Virkkala et al. 2013a).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
Bern Convention Appendix II.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Planning of future protected areas should take into account their location in relation to predicted climate change (Virkkala et al. 2013b).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Pinicola enucleator. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22720625A88647587. . Downloaded on 24 September 2018.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided