Linaria flavirostris 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Fringillidae

Scientific Name: Linaria flavirostris (Linnaeus, 1758)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Twite
Carduelis flavirostris (Linnaeus, 1758)
Taxonomic Source(s): Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Taxonomic Notes: Linaria flavirostris (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) was previously placed in the genus Carduelis following AERC TAC (2003); Cramp et al. (1977-1994); Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J.
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be decreasing, but it is not thought to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Countries occurrence:
Afghanistan; Armenia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Belgium; Bulgaria; China; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Faroe Islands; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Hungary; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Ireland; Italy; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Lithuania; Mongolia; Nepal; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation (Central Asian Russia, Eastern Asian Russia, European Russia); Slovakia; Spain; Sweden; Tajikistan; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; United Kingdom; Uzbekistan
Croatia; Montenegro; Portugal; Serbia; Slovenia; Switzerland
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:21400000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 164,000-756,000 pairs, which equates to 328,000-1,510,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.10% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 3,280,000-15,100,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend Justification:  In Europe the population size is estimated to be decreasing by less than 25% in 12.6 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:1000000-19999999Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species breeds on lower montane and submontane plateaux, open moorland, barren hillsides, scree slopes, boulder-strewn areas with little or sparse vegetation, steppes, alpine meadows and areas with stunted bushes and often near boggy areas. Race pipilans breeds mostly on grassy hillsides and moorlands with heather (Erica) and bracken (Pteridium) and also in coastal heather in Scotland (including Shetland). Outside of the breeding season it occupies similar open habitat at lower altitudes. The breeding season is from April to August. The nest is a compact, deep cup of plant fibres and roots, mostly heather, bracken, grass, moss, animal hair and feathers. It is generally sited on the ground or very low down within three metres of the ground in dwarf willow (Salix), heather, bilberry (Vaccinium), bracken, rushes or grass tussocks. Clutches are three to six eggs. The diet is made up mostly of seeds and buds and small numbers of invertebrates. The species is resident and migratory (Clement 2016).
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):4.2
Movement patterns:Full Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In Scotland, declines are thought to have been caused by overgrazing and agricultural expansion, (Hagemeijer and Blair 1997, Clement 2016) and changes in agricultural management causing habitat degradation and fragmentation. In addition climatic factors may have an impact on the species, influencing warmer or drier summers.  In the Waddenzee area of the North Sea coast the development of large embankments and increased grazing is thought to have driven declines (Clement 2016). Changes in land use and overgrazing also pose a threat in Ireland (McLoughlin 2009).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
Bern Convention Appendix II. The species is listed on the national Red Lists of the U.K. and Ireland (Lynas et al. 2007, Eaton et al. 2009).

Conservation Actions Proposed
This species requires the preservation and expansion of heterogeneously mixed moorland and the avoidance of agricultural improvement in foraging areas (McLoughlin 2009).

Amended [top]

Amended reason: Map revised and added Taxonomic Notes and associated references.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2017. Linaria flavirostris (amended version of 2016 assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T22720438A111128447. . Downloaded on 22 September 2018.
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