Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Ploceidae

Scientific Name: Euplectes jacksoni
Species Authority: (Sharpe, 1891)
Common Name(s):
English Jackson's Widowbird, Jackson's Whydah
French Veuve de Jackson

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Symes, A. & Butchart, S.
Contributor(s): Baker, N. & Msuha, M.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Evans, M., Khwaja, N., O'Brien, A., Robertson, P., Taylor, J.
This species is listed as Near Threatened because it is expected to experience a moderately rapid population decline during the next ten years, owing to the conversion and degradation of its grassland habitat. The species might qualify for a higher threat category if it is found that its population is undergoing at least a rapid population decline.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Near Threatened (NT)
2004 Near Threatened (NT)
2000 Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
1994 Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
1988 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Euplectes jacksoni is a resident of the highlands of west and central Kenya and north-east Tanzania. It is locally common over much of its relatively small range, from Eldoret and Nandi east to Laikipia and Mt Kenya, and south to the Aberdares, Loita and Nguruman Hills, north Serengeti National Park, Loliondo and the Crater Highlands (Zimmerman et al. 1996). However, in a survey of the Kinangop Plateau, Kenya, it was recorded in only 14 out of 40 plots (Lens and Bennun 1996).

Countries occurrence:
Kenya; Tanzania, United Republic of
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 108000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Lower elevation limit (metres): 1500
Upper elevation limit (metres): 3000
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population size of this species has not been quantified, but it is described as locally common.

Trend Justification:  The population is suspected to be in decline owing to ongoing habitat destruction.
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: Unknown Continuing decline of mature individuals: No
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation: 100

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: The species inhabits open grassland from 1,500-3,000 m (Lewis and Pomeroy 1989). It also feeds in agricultural land and is found in tall grassland in some areas. It breeds in drier grasslands than Long-tailed Widowbird E. progne, with which its range overlaps (Lewis and Pomeroy 1989). It feeds on grass seeds, particularly those of Themeda triandra and Panicum, as well as termite alates (Fry and Keith 2004). It is polygynous and highly territorial. The species's breeding sites are traditional, and may be used for a number of years. Breeding appears to take place throughout the year. Its nest, in which 2-4 eggs are laid, is a domed ball of woven grass with a side entrance, lined with grass seedheads, situated within 10 cm of the ground in a tuft of grass, with living grass bent down over it to form a bower. The incubation period is 12-13 days, followed by a fledging period of 17 days (Fry and Keith 2004).

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 3.8
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This and other restricted-range species of the grasslands of the Kenyan highlands are threatened by destruction and fragmentation of montane grasslands, as a result of intensified agricultural development and livestock production (Lens et al. 1996). Fires, started by pastoralists to control ticks, are common in the dry season (between September and November), and temporarily destroy most suitable habitat (M. Msuha in litt. 1998). Montane grasslands are poorly covered by the protected area system in Kenya (Lens et al. 1996).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
In Tanzania, virtually all its habitat is protected, for example in the Serengeti National Park and Ngorongoro Conservation Area (N. Baker in litt. 1999).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct surveys to obtain an estimate of the total population size. Monitor population trends through regular surveys. Monitor the conversion and degradation of montane grasslands. In Kenya, increase the area of montane grasslands that are protected.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Euplectes jacksoni. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22719249A38326407. . Downloaded on 04 October 2015.
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