|Scientific Name:||Anthus antarcticus Cabanis, 1884|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Stattersfield, A., O'Brien, A., Taylor, J.|
This species is classed as Near Threatened owing to its small population and small range on one island, which remains susceptible to the introduction of rats. Should any immediate threat arise, this species should be uplisted as a matter of urgency.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Anthus antarcticus is endemic to the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia (Georgia del Sur), with a total population estimated as 3,000-4,000 pairs (McIntosh and Walton 2000). It is confined to c.20 small, rat-free offshore islands and islets, and to a few mainland areas (<10% of total habitat), enclosed by sea-level glaciers, in which brown rat Rattus norvegicus is currently absent (Pye and Bonner 1980, Prince and Croxall 1983, Croxall 1987, Prince and Poncet 1996).|
Native:South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population has been estimated at 3000-4000 pairs, equivalent to 6,000-8,000 mature individuals and c.9,000-12,000 individuals in total.|
Trend Justification: The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats.
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It breeds in low altitude tussock grassland, wintering mainly on ice-free shorelines (Prince and Croxall 1983). It feeds on insects in tussock habitat, and insects and crustaceans along tidelines (J. P. Croxall in litt. 2000). In typical habitat it is common and productive, but winter survival of juveniles is low. It has almost no natural predators, remains of birds very occasionally turning up at middens of Brown Skua Catharacta lonnbergi (J. P. Croxall in litt. 2000).|
|Systems:||Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||3.7|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||The projected continuing recession of glaciers at South Georgia threaten its remaining mainland habitats with invasion by rats (J. P. Croxall in litt. 2000). Accidental introduction of rats to offshore islands is a perpetual risk.|
Conservation Actions Underway
Although precautions are taken to prevent the introduction of rats to several important sites, their remote location renders regulation of all visitors to all sites impossible in practice (J. P. Croxall in litt. 2000, McIntosh and Walton 2000). Conservation Actions Proposed
Carry out surveys to obtain an up-to-date population estimate. Monitor population trends through regular surveys. Maintain measures to prevent the introduction of rats.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Anthus antarcticus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22718588A94587376.Downloaded on 22 November 2017.|
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