|Scientific Name:||Petronia petronia (Linnaeus, 1766)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J.|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
Native:Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Andorra; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Bulgaria; China; France; Georgia; Greece; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Italy; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Lebanon; Libya; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Monaco; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation (Central Asian Russia, Eastern Asian Russia, European Russia); Serbia; Spain (Canary Is.); Syrian Arab Republic; Tajikistan; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan
Vagrant:Austria; Belgium; Cyprus; Germany; Gibraltar; Malta; Poland; Slovenia; Switzerland; United Kingdom
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 2,140,000-4,620,000 pairs, which equates to 4,290,000-9,230,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.20% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 21,450,000-46,150,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.|
Trend Justification: In Europe, trends between 1998 and 2013 show that populations are stable (EBCC 2015).
|Current Population Trend:||Increasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The species is normally found in bare treeless country, ranging from flat desert steppe to rocky slopes and ravines. In Spain, it is common in open woodland or parkland, such as of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster). It also often forages in large open areas of cultivation, vineyards, olive groves, near old buildings and even penetrates into human settlements. It breeds from March to August in loose colonies or isolated pairs. The nest is an untidy structure, sometimes domed and made from grass, lined with feathers, animal hair and wool. It is set in a crack or crevice in a rock or tree, or in a wall or roof of an isolated and ruined building or occasionally in an occupied building. Clutches are four to seven eggs. The diet is mostly seeds of low herbs and grasses, as well as small berries and it also takes animal matter in the breeding season, such as termites (Isoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera). The species is resident and a partial migrant, with some post-breeding dispersal and descent to lower altitudes in the winter (Summers-Smith 2016).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||2.8|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||Declines in the Canary Islands are considered due to competition from the introduced Passer hispaniolensis (Summers-Smith 2016).|
Conservation Actions Underway
There are currently no known conservation measures for this species.
Conservation Actions Proposed
No conservation measures are currently needed for this species.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Petronia petronia. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22718307A88032500.Downloaded on 18 February 2018.|
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