||Aethopyga duyvenbodei (Schlegel, 1871)
||Elegant Sunbird, Sanghir Sunbird
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
||12 cm. Large, brightly-coloured sunbird. Male has purplish-red ear-coverts and collar, metallic green-and-blue patches on crown, upperwing-coverts and uppertail-coverts, yellowish-olive back, yellow rump-band and underparts. Female is much duller, with yellowish-olive upperparts and yellow rump and underparts. Similar spp. Male Brown-throated Sunbird Anthreptes malacensis has brown throat and purplish wings and tail. It lacks a yellow rump, as does the female. Voice Undocumented, but presumably has high-pitched calls and twittering song, like close congeners.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Benstead, P., Gilroy, J. & Taylor, J.
This sunbird is now confined to one very small island, where its population is severely fragmented. Although it can persist in degraded habitats, it is suspected to be undergoing a continuing decline as both primary and secondary habitats are being lost through human encroachment. It therefore qualifies as Endangered.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2012 – Endangered (EN)
- 2008 – Endangered (EN)
- 2004 – Endangered (EN)
- 2000 – Endangered (EN)
- 1996 – Endangered (EN)
- 1994 – Endangered (EN)
- 1988 – Threatened (T)
|Range Description:||Aethopyga duyvenbodei is currently known from Sangihe, north of Sulawesi, Indonesia, although there is an historical record from nearby Siau (BirdLife International 2001). In 1995, it was found to be regular at low densities at seven localities and in 1998-1999 it was the most commonly encountered forest species at Gunung Sahendaruman, suggesting locally high population densities. It was also found to occur at low densities in secondary habitats well isolated from primary forest, suggesting resilience to habitat loss (Riley 2002). It is, however, absent from large areas of the island, and continuing loss of both primary and secondary forest habitat suggests that populations continue to decline. |
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||700|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Yes||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Number of Locations:||11-100||♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No||♦ Lower elevation limit (metres):||75|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||900|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Surveys carried out in 1998-1999 found high densities in both primary forest and adjacent secondary habitats. Low densities were also recorded in secondary habitats that were isolated from primary forest. As such, the population estimate was revised to take into account both higer abundance in key habitats, and presence in larger areas of secondary habitat, resulting in an increased estimate of 18,900-43,800 individuals, roughly equivalent to 13,000-29,000 mature individuals.|
Trend Justification: Despite this species's tolerance of secondary habitats, moderate population declines are suspected to be continuing, as both primary and secondary forest habitats are being affected by encroachment and fragmentation throughout its range.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|♦ Number of mature individuals:||13000-29000||♦ Continuing decline of mature individuals:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations:||No||♦ Population severely fragmented:||Yes|
|♦ No. of subpopulations:||2-100||♦ Continuing decline in subpopulations:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:||No||♦ All individuals in one subpopulation:||No|