Mirafra pulpa 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Alaudidae

Scientific Name: Mirafra pulpa
Species Authority: Friedmann, 1930
Common Name(s):
English Friedmann's Lark, Friedmann's Bush Lark
French Alouette de Friedmann
Identification information: 13-14cm. 22g. Small, rufous-toned lark with pale supercilium. Has rufous-brown centres to greater coverts, a rufous wingpanel, white throat and buff-underparts. Similar spp. Very similar in appearance to Singing Bushlark M. cantillans but the latter has blackish-brown feather centres. Voice A diagnostic "hoo-eee-oo" whistle repeated every 1-2 seconds.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Data Deficient ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Ash, J., Baker, N. & Turner, D.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Butchart, S., Evans, M., Martin, R, Robertson, P., Starkey, M., Symes, A.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Data Deficient (DD)
2004 Data Deficient (DD)
2000 Data Deficient (DD)
1994 Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
1988 Near Threatened (NT)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Mirafra pulpa is a very poorly known species. In Kenya, it is known from six specimens and a few sight records (although these include an observation of at least 150 individuals), principally from Tsavo East and West National Parks (Lack 1977). The type specimen was collected in Ethiopia in 1912 (Lack 1977), but it has only been seen there once since, in 1998 (J. Ash and D. Turner in litt. 1999). There are also several records from Mkomazi Game Reserve in Tanzania during 1994-1996 (Lack 1997) and a single record from south of Arusha in August 1998 (N. Baker in litt. 1999). There are no known threats to the species but it is apparently rare. It is best identified by its characteristic song: a single long drawn-out 'hoo-ee-oo' note, with a slight emphasis on the middle part, repeated at 1-2 second intervals. This is given during undulating display flights, or from the tops of small bushes, and is also often given at night (Lack 1977). The species is solitary and rather wary. Further information is required about this lark's abundance, ecology, seasonal movements and possible threats.

Countries occurrence:
Ethiopia; Kenya; Tanzania, United Republic of
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 42100
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population size of this species has not been quantified, but it is described as extremely rare.

Trend Justification:  The population is suspected to be in decline because the species's habitat is probably prone to overgrazing and conversion to cultivation (del Hoyo et al. 2004).
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: Unknown Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation: 100

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It appears to prefer fairly dense grassland with bushes, possibly avoiding drier areas (Lack 1977), and feeds on grass seeds, small grasshoppers and beetles (Lack 1977). It has been suggested that the species is migratory since birds have been found among other migrants attracted to the lights of Ngulia Safri Lodge in Tsavo West, and it is only found at certain times of year (e.g. during the rains in Tsavo) (Lack 1977, 1997), but there is no information on the extent or pattern of any movements.

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 3.8
Movement patterns: Nomadic

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): None are known

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
None are known.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey all historical sites and other potentially suitable habitat, focusing on its distinctive song. Study its abundance, ecology, seasonal movements and possible threats.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Mirafra pulpa. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22717033A38687147. . Downloaded on 29 May 2016.
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