|Scientific Name:||Mirafra pulpa Friedmann, 1930|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.|
|Identification information:||13-14cm. 22g. Small, rufous-toned lark with pale supercilium. Has rufous-brown centres to greater coverts, a rufous wingpanel, white throat and buff-underparts. Similar spp. Very similar in appearance to Singing Bushlark M. cantillans but the latter has blackish-brown feather centres. Voice A diagnostic "hoo-eee-oo" whistle repeated every 1-2 seconds.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Data Deficient ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor(s):||Ash, J., Baker, N., Turner, D. & Borrow, N.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Benstead, P., Butchart, S., Evans, M., Martin, R, Robertson, P., Starkey, M., Symes, A. & Westrip, J.|
This is a very poorly known species. Further information is required about this lark's abundance, ecology, seasonal movements and possible threats.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Mirafra pulpa is a very poorly known species, but despite a lack of threats, it is apparently rare. In Kenya, it is known from six specimens and a few sight records (although these include an observation of at least 150 individuals), principally from Tsavo East, West National Parks (Lack 1977), and also Buffalo Springs and Shaba National Reserves (N. Borrow in litt. 2016). The type specimen was collected in Ethiopia in 1912 (Lack 1977), but it has only been seen there once since, in 1998 (J. Ash and D. Turner in litt. 1999). There are also several records from Mkomazi Game Reserve in Tanzania during 1994-1996 (Lack 1997) and a single record from south of Arusha in August 1998 (N. Baker in litt. 1999).|
Native:Ethiopia; Kenya; Tanzania, United Republic of
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population size of this species has not been quantified, but it is described as extremely rare.|
Trend Justification: The population is suspected to be in decline because the species's habitat is probably prone to overgrazing and conversion to cultivation (del Hoyo et al. 2004).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It appears to prefer fairly dense grassland with bushes, possibly avoiding drier areas (Lack 1977), and feeds on grass seeds, small grasshoppers and beetles (Lack 1977). It has been suggested that the species is migratory since birds have been found among other migrants attracted to the lights of Ngulia Safri Lodge in Tsavo West, and it is only found at certain times of year (e.g. during the rains in Tsavo) (Lack 1977, 1997), but there is no information on the extent or pattern of any movements. It is best identified by its characteristic song: a single long drawn-out 'hoo-ee-oo' note, with a slight emphasis on the middle part, repeated at 1-2 second intervals. This is given during undulating display flights, or from the tops of small bushes, and is also often given at night (Lack 1977). The species is solitary and rather wary.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||3.8|
|Major Threat(s):||None are known|
Conservation Actions Underway
None are known. Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey all historical sites and other potentially suitable habitat, focusing on its distinctive song. Study its abundance, ecology, seasonal movements and possible threats.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Mirafra pulpa. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22717033A94518753.Downloaded on 18 March 2018.|
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