Zosterops leucophaeus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Zosteropidae

Scientific Name: Zosterops leucophaeus (Hartlaub, 1857)
Common Name(s):
English Principe Speirops, Príncipe Speirops
French Speirops de Principe
Speirops leucophaeus — Collar and Andrew (1988)
Speirops leucophaeus — Collar et al. (1994)
Speirops leucophoeus Hartlaub, 1857
Speirops leucophoeus ssp. leucophaeus — Dowsett and Forbes-Watson (1993)
Speirops leucophoeus ssp. leucophaeus — BirdLife International (2004)
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Identification information: 12 cm. Small, very pale grey, warbler-like bird. Grey upperparts with exceptionally pale grey head, almost appearing white at times. Pale grey underparts. Darker grey wings and tail. In some lights a tinge of blue can be seen in the grey plumage. Voice Long trilling trrrrrrrruuuuu or rapid tric tric tric.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Atkinson, P. & Gascoigne, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Khwaja, N., O'Brien, A., Peet, N., Shutes, S., Starkey, M., Taylor, J., Westrip, J.
This species is listed as Near Threatened because it has an extremely small range, and may have a small population, which is likely to be declining owing to on-going changes in land-use.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Speirops leucophoeus is endemic to Príncipe, São Tomé e Príncipe. There is limited evidence of a possible decline between the 1970s, when it was described as abundant, and the 1990s (Atkinson et al. 1991). It is now considered poorly known (Olmos and Turshak undated). However, it remains common in all habitats where it occurs (J. Baillie and A. Gascoigne in litt. 2000).

Countries occurrence:
Sao Tomé and Principe (Principe)
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:200
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):800
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population size of this species has not been quantified; it is described as frequent to common but somewhat local.

Trend Justification:  The population is suspected to be in decline owing to ongoing habitat destruction and fragmentation.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:UnknownContinuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:Yes
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation:100

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It occurs in all forested habitats, including plantations, up to 800 m. It occurs at relatively high densities in primary and secondary forest and agricultural habitats (Dallimer et al. 2012), but it is most abundant in forest regrowth, trees and bushes in farmland and shaded cocoa and coffee plantations under the shade of large Eurythrina trees (Fry et al. 2000). In primary forest it occurs mainly in the middle strata. Its diet consists of insects, spiders, berries, seeds and other plant matter. The nest is an openly woven cup slung between two twigs, made of grasses, twigs, moss and petioles. One nest was observed to contain two eggs (Fry et al. 2000).

Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):4.4
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The decline between the 1970s and 1990s was possibly as a result of pesticide use in plantations (Atkinson et al. 1991). Land privatisation is presently causing an increase in the number of small farms on the island and a consequent reduction in tree cover. This may have an impact on its population in the near future, particularly as secondary forest habitats are encroached. The proposed establishment of an economic free-trade zone would have been a serious threat but it appears unlikely to go ahead (A. Gascoigne in litt. 2000).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
No targeted conservation action is known for this species.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Carry out surveys to assess the total population size. Conduct regular surveys to monitor population trends. Study the impact of changing land-use on the species. Effectively protect significant areas of suitable forest at key sites, in both strictly protected areas and community led multiple use areas. Promote conservation and ornithology to local people.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Zosterops leucophaeus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22713919A94394313. . Downloaded on 16 July 2018.
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