Pycnonotus xanthopygos 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Pycnonotidae

Scientific Name: Pycnonotus xanthopygos (Ehrenberg, 1833)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English White-spectacled Bulbul, White-eyed Bulbul, Yellow-vented Bulbul
French Bulbul commun
Taxonomic Source(s): Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J.
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Countries occurrence:
Egypt; Israel; Jordan; Lebanon; Oman; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Saudi Arabia; Syrian Arab Republic; Turkey; United Arab Emirates; Yemen
Present - origin uncertain:
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:4540000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):3200
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 6,000-18,000 pairs, which equates to 12,000-36,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.10% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 120,000-360,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend Justification:  The population is estimated to be increasing following a long-term range expansion, facilitated by urban and agricultural development (del Hoyo et al. 2005). The European population trend is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015).
Current Population Trend:Increasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:100000-399999Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species occupies a wide range of well-vegetated areas with low trees and bushes, in both natural vegetation and cultivation, including open pine (Pinus) woods, juniper (Juniperus) forest, Ceratonia scrub, thick bush in wadi beds, trees and bushes in open semi-desert, oases, orchards, groves, fields, gardens and villages. The species breeds from the end of March to August in Israel, from late April in Oman, from February in Saudi Arabia and from March in the Gulf states. It is monogamous. The nest is a cup or small basket of thin twigs, grass stems, moss and leaves with the base constructed of broad leaves (sometimes with newspaper, strips of plastic or cotton wool) and the structure is held together by cobwebs and cotton threads, lined after a fashion with hair, shredded bark and rootlets, apparently sometimes unlined. Clutches are two to four eggs. It feeds mostly on fruit, as well as seeds and invertebrates and less frequently, nectar, leaves and flowers. The species is mainly resident, although some local movements occur in search of fruit sources and altitudinal migration may occur in Turkey (Fishpool and Tobias 2005).
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):2.7
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species is considered an agricultural pest in some places; however this has not impacted population numbers (Fishpool and Tobias 2005).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
There are currently no known conservation measures for this species within Europe.

Conservation Actions Proposed
No conservation measures are currently needed for this species within Europe.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Pycnonotus xanthopygos. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22712681A87540519. . Downloaded on 19 June 2018.
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