||Hirondelle à queue blanche
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
||13 cm. Small swallow. Male deep, iridescent blue (appears black) above, white below, with white tail. Female and juvenile similar but white on tail much reduced, sometimes absent. Similar spp. No other swallow has completely white underparts and white tail. Voice High-pitched, swallow-like twittering. Hints Easily seen year-round at 20 km east of Yabello in southern Ethiopia.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Borghesio, L., Collar, N., Mellanby, R., Robertson, P. & Bladon, A.
||Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Pilgrim, J., Shutes, S., Starkey, M., Symes, A., Taylor, J. & Westrip, J.
This species is believed to have a small population, and is suspected to be declining owing to the intensification of land-use across much of its small range. It is therefore treated as Vulnerable, although there is little information on its population status and the seriousness of threats. There is cause for concern because of its specific climate envelope, and future information may lead to the species requiring to be reassessed.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2012 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2008 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2006 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2004 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2000 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1996 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1994 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1988 – Threatened (T)
|Population:||The population is estimated to number fewer than 10,000 individuals because the species probably exists at relatively low densities across its range. It is placed in the band 2,500-9,999 mature individuals, equating to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.|
Trend Justification: The population is suspected to be in decline owing to changes in land use across much of the species's range, however the magnitude of this decline is unclear.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|♦ Number of mature individuals:||2500-9999||♦ Continuing decline of mature individuals:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations:||No||♦ Population severely fragmented:||No|
|♦ No. of subpopulations:||1||♦ Continuing decline in subpopulations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:||No||♦ All individuals in one subpopulation:||Yes|
|♦ No. of individuals in largest subpopulation:||100|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The species is found in open, semi-arid country above 1,300 m with short grass and Acacia woodland with some clearings (EWNHS 1996, P. Robertson in litt. 1998, Mellanby et al. 2008; A. Bladon in litt. 2016). It occurs less commonly over farmland and is absent from denser broad-leaved woodland (Mellanby et al. 2008), but forages readily around villages and cattle herds (Bladon et al. 2015). Sightings on the Liben Plains come from open grassland at c.1,650 m (Gabremichael et al. 2009). This species is generally observed singly or in pairs, although flocks of up to 50 individuals have been seen (Bladon et al. 2015). It breeds during the main rainy season (April-May), and a small number of nest have been found in the smaller rainy season (October-November), but the extent of breeding at this time is uncertain (A. Bladon in litt. 2016). Nest appear to be re-used over several years, but each nest only produces a single brood per year (Bladon et al. 2015). Most nest records come from traditional huts; the species appears to avoid more modern man-made structures used by some other hirundines, and despite previous hypotheses only 3 nests have been confirmed in termite mounds (EWNHS 1996, Mellanby et al. 2009, Bladon et al. 2015). The nest is a small mud cup lined with grass and animal hair, containing 3-4 pure white eggs. Incubation lasts 16-17 days, and fledging takes place around 19-20 days after hatching (Bladon et al. 2015) |
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||4|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|