Poecile montanus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Paridae

Scientific Name: Poecile montanus (Conrad von Baldenstein, 1827)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Willow Tit
Parus montanus Conrad von Baldenstein, 1827
Taxonomic Source(s): AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Wheatley, H.
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Countries occurrence:
Albania; Austria; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; China; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Italy; Japan; Kazakhstan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation (Central Asian Russia, Eastern Asian Russia, European Russia); Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; Sweden; Switzerland; Ukraine; United Kingdom
Present - origin uncertain:
Korea, Republic of; Spain
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:44300000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):4275
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 30,500,000-44,200,000 pairs, which equates to 61,100,000-88,400,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.35% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 174,600,000-252,600,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. National population estimates include: c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs in China; c.100-100,000 breeding pairs in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs in Russia and (for the subspecies songara) c.100-10,000 breeding pairs in China (Brazil 2009).

Trend Justification:  Both increases and decreases in regional populations have been noted in the second half of the 20th century (del Hoyo et al. 2007), but in Europe, trends since 1980 show that populations have undergone a moderate decline (EBCC 2015).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:170000000-259999999Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species inhabits lowland, submontane and montane forests and woodlands, principally coniferous forests of pine (Pinus), larch (Larix) and spruce (Picea), and in Siberian taiga it is most frequently in steppe-forest of Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica). It is also often in dense and damp areas, especially Sphagnum bogs and areas of willows (Salix) or alders (Alnus) and on tundra edge. In Europe also occurs in willows, alders and more shrubby vegetation, including elder (Sambucus) patches, edges of woods, copses, and hedges, especially along rivers and beside lakes. In Tien Shan it occurs in montane conifer forest, also mixed broadleaf woodland with well-developed undergrowth and willow thickets, and lowland to submontane birch (Betula) forest. It is also found in riverine and swamp thickets, and occasionally in osier (Salix) beds. It breeds from April to July and is monogamous, forming a pair-bond for life. The female builds the nest which is constructed mostly of bark or wood strips, grass, plant fibres, animal hair and feathers (rarely, moss included). It is placed in a hole or crevice up to 3 m (often less than 1 m, exceptionally to 10 m) from the ground in a rotting tree trunk or old stump. The hole is excavated by both sexes or may be adapted from an existing one. Clutch size is five to nine eggs. It feeds mostly on invertebrates and larvae but also vegetable matter. It also stores food behind loose bark, under branches, in bud capsules or in lichen and rarely in the ground in a steep bank. In Norway most food is cached between August and September. The species is mainly resident (Gosler et al. 2013).
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):4.6
Movement patterns:Altitudinal Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Habitat loss and degradation are implicated in the decline in the U.K. and there is also recent evidence that increased competition from other parids, which evict this species from nest-holes, and increased nest predation by Great Spotted Woodpeckers (Dendrocopos major) are also important factors, exacerbated by the low dispersability of the species that makes recolonisation difficult after local extinction (Gosler et al. 2013). The species may also be threatened by future climate change (Harrison et al. 2003, Siriwardena 2004).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
Bern Convention Appendix II. In the U.K. the species is Red listed and is a U.K. Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) priority bird species and several local BAPs have been developed.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Research into habitat loss and pressures from other species to determine their impact should be undertaken. Ensure existing populations are adequately protected.

Amended [top]

Amended reason: Map edited: In race affinis, extended range E to SW Shaanxi.. EOO updated.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2017. Poecile montanus (amended version of 2016 assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T22711703A118838309. . Downloaded on 20 September 2018.
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