||Bali Myna, Rothschild's Starling, Rothschild's Mynah, Bali Starling, White Starling
||Estornino de Rothschild, Miná de Rothschild
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
||25 cm. Medium-large, stocky starling. Almost wholly white with long, drooping crest, black wing-tips and tail tip. Blue bare skin around eye and legs, yellow bill. Similar spp. Black-winged Starling Sturnus melanopterus has shorter crest, much larger area of black on wings and tail and yellow eye-ring and legs. Voice Variety of sharp chattering calls and an emphatic twat.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Benstead, P., Blakemore, A., Brickle, N., Dijkman, G., Wood, P., Kenwrick, C., Bayu Wirayudha, I. & Halaouate, M.
||Benstead, P., Bird, J., Davidson, P., Derhé, M., Pilgrim, J., Symes, A., Tobias, J., Khwaja, N. & Wright, L
This stunning starling qualifies as Critically Endangered because it has an extremely small range and a tiny population which is still suffering from illegal poaching for the cagebird trade. Releases of captive-bred birds have boosted the population, but it is uncertain how many of these have yet bred successfully in the wild. In due course, if the population continues to grow and trapping pressures can be brought under control, the species may warrant downlisting.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2015 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2013 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2012 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2010 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2009 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2008 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2006 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2004 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2000 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 1996 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 1994 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 1988 – Threatened (T)
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to the island of Bali, Indonesia, where it formerly ranged across the north-west third of the island. It has perhaps long been uncommon (numbers in the early 1900s, the period of discovery, have been retrospectively guessed at 300-900, although this is thought to be a gross underestimate), but has declined drastically in population and range. Illegal poaching reduced numbers to a critically low level in 1990, when the wild population was estimated at c. 15 birds. Conservation intervention coupled with the release of a few captive-bred birds raised this to between 35 and 55. However, despite excellent breeding success and continuing conservation efforts, the population continues to fluctuate and fell to six birds in 2001 (P. Benstead verbally 2003). Continuing releases have raised numbers in West Bali National Park, such that surveys in March 2005 found 24 individuals (P. Wood in litt. 2005) and in 2008 the population here was believed to be around 50 birds (G. Dijkman in litt. 2007, 2008). However, it is uncertain how many of these released birds have bred successfully in the wild and therefore can be regarded as "mature individuals" following IUCN guidelines. A population has been introduced on Nusa Penida Island (apparently not part of the native range) derived from captive individuals. The population appears to have adapted to the island and is breeding, with a total of 65 adults and 62 young present in 2009 (G. Dijkman in litt. 2007, 2008). Around 1,000 individuals are believed to survive in captivity. There was an apparent sighting of a pair of birds in East Java, but this has not been confirmed and is likely to be escaped or released captive birds (A. Blakemore in litt. 2011).|
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||38|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Number of Locations:||1||♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||175|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There were an estimated c. 50 individuals in the West Bali National Park in 2008 (Dijkman in litt. 2008). On Nusa Penida, the population was recorded as 65 adults and 62 juveniles in 2009 (C. Kenwrick in litt. 2009). However, given that the population estimate should only comprise of mature individuals, and the IUCN stipulates re-introduced individuals must have produced viable offspring before they are counted as mature individuals, the current population of 115 individuals should be considered a maximum, and as such the population is precautionarily assumed to be fewer than 50 individuals and mature individuals.|
Trend Justification: The wild population has been maintained only by release of captive birds, so is essentially gradually declining. However, signs from the reintroduced colony on Nusa Penida and West Bali National Park are promising, with both populations breeding and apparently increasing.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|♦ Number of mature individuals:||1-49||♦ Continuing decline of mature individuals:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations:||No||♦ Population severely fragmented:||No|
|♦ No. of subpopulations:||1||♦ Continuing decline in subpopulations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:||No||♦ All individuals in one subpopulation:||Yes|
|♦ No. of individuals in largest subpopulation:||100|