Cinnyricinclus femoralis (Richmond, 1897)
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
||16-18 cm. Small starling of forest. Black head and breast. White underparts. Bright orange eye. Similar spp. Magpie Starling Speculipastor bicolor has obvious white wing-patches and occurs in much drier woodland. Voice Musical, whistled call, up and down scale. Short, high-pitched song. Hints Best seen in montane forest on Mt Kenya above Naro Moru and Embu, or in Kerita (Gatamaiyu), part of the Kikuyu Escarpment Forest, near Nairobi. It is gregarious except during the breeding season, when it nests in tree-cavities (Zimmerman et al. 1996).
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Baker, N., Bennun, L., Cordeiro, N. & Mwangi, K.
||Ekstrom, J., Evans, M., Shutes, S., Starkey, M., Symes, A., Taylor, J. & Westrip, J.
This species has a small range, within which it is generally rare. Its forest habitat is declining in both extent and quality, indicating that its presumably small population is probably declining too. It is therefore considered Vulnerable.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2012 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2008 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2004 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2000 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1996 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1994 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1988 – Threatened (T)
|Range Description:||Cinnyricinclus femoralis is found in a few montane forest localities in Kenya and northern Tanzania. It is generally scarce and local in forest on Mt Kenya (Zimmerman et al. 1996), but common in Kikuyu Escarpment Forest in the southern Aberdare Mountains (375 km2) (Bennun and Njoroge 1999), where flocks of up to 40 have been seen (Taylor and Taylor 1988). However, there have been few recent records from the Kikuyu Escarpment, possibly suggesting a decline in numbers (Bennun in litt. 1999). It has also been recorded from the isolated Chyulu Hills (old records of flocks of up to 100 birds on fruiting trees [Lewis and Pomeroy 1989], but no recent records) and Taita Hills (recent records [Brooks et al. 1998]), suggesting that it may make substantial movements between forests (Zimmerman et al. 1996). In Tanzania, it is found on Mt Kilimanjaro where it was considered quite common above 1,800 m, in 1977 (Turner 1977), but there have been few recent records (N. Baker in litt. 1999) and it was regarded in 1991 as probably rare (Cordeiro 1994). It is also known from forests on Mt Meru, where it is scarce and may be only seasonal in occurrence (Turner 1977). Flocks of 20-25 were seen at 1,600 m in Kindoroko Forest Reserve in the North Pare Mountains in July 1993 (Cordeiro and Kiure 1995). |
Kenya; Tanzania, United Republic of
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||81200|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Number of Locations:||11-100||♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No||♦ Lower elevation limit (metres):||1800|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||2600|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate equates to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.|
Trend Justification: The species's population is suspected to be declining in line with the clearance and degradation of highland forest within its range. The likely rate of decline, however, has not been estimated.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|♦ Number of mature individuals:||2500-9999||♦ Continuing decline of mature individuals:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations:||No||♦ Population severely fragmented:||No|
|♦ No. of subpopulations:||1||♦ Continuing decline in subpopulations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:||No||♦ All individuals in one subpopulation:||Yes|
|♦ No. of individuals in largest subpopulation:||100|