|Scientific Name:||Cyanecula svecica (Linnaeus, 1758)|
Luscinia svecica (Linnaeus, 1758)
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern (Regional assessment) ver 3.1|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ashpole, J, Burfield, I., Ieronymidou, C., Pople, R., Wheatley, H. & Wright, L|
European regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
EU27 regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
In Europe this species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence 10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (30% decline over ten years or three generations). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern in Europe.
Within the EU27 this species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence 10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (30% decline over ten years or three generations). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern in the EU27.
Native:Albania; Armenia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Gibraltar; Greece; Hungary; Italy; Latvia; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Malta; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation (European Russia); Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain (Canary Is. - Vagrant); Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey; Ukraine; United Kingdom
Vagrant:Faroe Islands; Iceland; Ireland; Liechtenstein
|Population:||The European population is estimated at 4,460,000-7,760,000 pairs, which equates to 8,930,000-15,500,000 mature individuals. The population in the EU27 is estimated at 220,000-461,000 pairs, which equates to 440,000-922,000 mature individuals. For details of national estimates, see the Supplementary Material.|
Trend Justification: In Europe and the EU27 the population size is estimated to be stable. For details of national estimates, see attached PDF.
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||For breeding, this species appears to require copious low dense vegetation with patches of open ground. It breeds in ecotone habitats between forest and plain or open areas at tree-line, including wooded tundra, mountain steppe, subalpine scrub, marshland with low woody cover, clumps of willow (Salix), alder (Alnus) and birch (Betula) on floodplains, riverbank thickets, reedy and shrub-dominated lakeshores, bushy sites near water. The breeding season is from late April to July in central Europe, from late May in Scandinavia and early April to June in Armenia. The nest is a deep cup of leaves, small twigs, dry grass, rootlets, plant down and moss, which is occasionally lined with animal hair. It is placed among grass and scrub on wet ground and is commonly associated with topographic features such as a hummock, gulley, lip of a bank, or tussock. Clutches are four to seven eggs. The diet is principally invertebrates, particularly insects but it does take some seeds and fruit in the autumn (Collar 2005). The species is mainly migratory, with west Palearctic populations wintering in patches across the Mediterranean Basin and the northern Afrotropics and eastern populations in the Indian subcontinent (Snow and Perris 1998).|
|Systems:||Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||4.2|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||In Europe, this species experiences pronounced but largely unexplained population fluctuations (Hagemeijer and Blair 1997, Collar 2005). Some negative trends appear to be explained by natural succession in marshland, drainage and management practices such as reed-cutting, seedling removal and cattle grazing (Hagemeijer and Blair 1997), but recovery has taken place without the reversal of these circumstances. In Spain, during the 1990s it may have suffered from degradation of habitat through grazing and in Austria, significant losses have occurred during the 19th century due to drainage and it now faces threats there due to stabilization of lake levels, successional loss of reed-belt, and occupation of secondary habitats on arable land (where nest predation elevated) (Collar 2005).|
Conservation Actions Underway
CMS Appendix II. EU Birds Directive Annex I. There are currently no known conservation measures for this species.
Conservation Actions Proposed
In Bavaria, growing numbers may collapse unless succession is contained through habitat management (Collar 2005). This species would benefit from further research on the causes of population fluctuations.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2015. Cyanecula svecica. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T22709707A60201947.Downloaded on 21 February 2018.|
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