|Scientific Name:||Turdus viscivorus Linnaeus, 1758|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern (Regional assessment) ver 3.1|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ashpole, J, Burfield, I., Ieronymidou, C., Pople, R., Wheatley, H. & Wright, L|
European regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
EU27 regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
In Europe this species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence 10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (30% decline over ten years or three generations). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern in Europe.
Within the EU27 this species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence 10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (30% decline over ten years or three generations). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern in the EU27.
Native:Albania; Andorra; Armenia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Gibraltar; Greece; Hungary; Ireland; Italy; Latvia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Malta; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation (European Russia); Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey; Ukraine; United Kingdom
Vagrant:Faroe Islands; Iceland
|Population:||The European population is estimated at 4,120,000-8,960,000 pairs, which equates to 8,250,000-17,900,000 mature individuals. The population in the EU27 is estimated at 2,370,000-4,590,000 pairs, which equates to 4,740,000-9,170,000 mature individuals. For details of national estimates, see the Supplementary Material.|
Trend Justification: In Europe the population size is estimated to be stable. In the EU27 the population size is estimated to be increasing. For details of national estimates, see attached PDF.
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The species requires a mosaic of wooded and open country, and thus inhabits open mature forest, woodland glades, orchards, riverside forest, open grassland with scrub and mountain steppe with shrubs; often penetrating grassy-bracken moorland areas on low craggy hills and mountains at some distance from trees. It is most typically found, in rolling, open landscapes with scattered trees or copses, including parkland and park-like farmland.|
In western and central Europe, it breeds from late March to late June and from late April in the north. The nest is a large cup of dry grass, plant stems, roots and moss, bound together with mud and lined with fine grasses and sometimes pine needles. Typically it is found two to ten metres up in the fork of a tree and normally lays three to five eggs. It feeds on invertebrates as well as seeds and fruit in the autumn and winter. In the west of its range the species is sedentary or a partial migrant and in the north and east of its range it is more fully migratory (Collar 2005).
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||6.1|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||In Spain the species suffers pressure from hunting. Finnish populations have suffered from the felling of old growth forest (Hagemeijer and Blair 1997, Collar 2005) as a result of modern forestry practices. Studies in the Netherlands have shown fluctuations in population numbers due to severe winter weather (Hagemeijer and Blair 1997).|
Conservation Actions Underway
EU Birds Directive Annex II. There are currently no known conservation measures for this species.
Conservation Actions Proposed
The species would benefit locally from the restoration and maintenance of low-intensity forestry management.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2015. Turdus viscivorus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T22708829A60195505.Downloaded on 20 June 2018.|
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