Cinclus schulzii 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Cinclidae

Scientific Name: Cinclus schulzii Cabanis, 1882
Common Name(s):
English Rufous-throated Dipper
Cinclus schulzi Cabanis, 1882 [orth. error]
Cinclus schulzii ssp. schulzii — Collar and Andrew (1988)
Taxonomic Source(s): SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #
Taxonomic Notes: Cinclus schulzii (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) was previously listed as C. schulzi.
Identification information: 15 cm.  Subtly coloured dipper.  Dull slaty-grey.  Paler on head and face.  Pale pinky-rufous bib.  White patch in primaries visible in flight and when wing flicking. Short tail and rounded wings.  Dark bare parts.  Voice Typically series of raspy and metallic shenk calls.  Calls faster in flight.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable C2a(i) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Chebez, J., Jaramillo, A. & Mayer, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Gilroy, J., Pople, R., Sharpe, C.J.
This species qualifies as Vulnerable owing to its small, fragmented and declining population (Collar et al. 1992).  There are apparently a large number of small subpopulations, which are mostly declining (especially in Argentina) as a result of changes in water management and possibly deforestation.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species occurs on the east Andean slope in south Bolivia (Tarija and Chuquisaca) and north-west Argentina (Jujuy, Salta, Tucumán, Catamarca).  It can be quite local, and most subpopulations appear to be very small. Estimates of the Bolivian population vary from up to 500 pairs (Ergueta and Morales 1996) to over 1,000 pairs (Tyler and Tyler 1996).  The latter figure is based on its widespread occurrence on permanent streams near Tarija, and it being locally common south of Narvaez (Tyler and Tyler 1996).  The Argentine population has been estimated at no more than 1,000 pairs (Tyler 1994).

Countries occurrence:
Argentina; Bolivia, Plurinational States of
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:147000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):YesExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Number of Locations:11-100Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:NoLower elevation limit (metres):1500
Upper elevation limit (metres):2500
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population is estimated to number 3,000-4,000 individuals, roughly equating to 2,000-2,700 mature individuals.

Trend Justification:  There are no new data on population size or trend, but current threats to occupied habitats suggest that slow or moderate, continuing declines are likely.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:2000-2700Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
No. of subpopulations:2-100Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It inhabits rivers and streams 5-15 m in width with relatively stable channels, cascades, waterfalls, mid-river rocks, and rocky cliffs or banks (Mazar Barnett et al. 1998b, Tyler and Tyler 1996).  It breeds in the alder Alnus acuminata zone at 1,500-2,500 m, descending to larger rivers at c.800 m during frosts (Tyler and Tyler 1996).  It has been found above and below the Alnus zone, and on streams running through pastureland in Bolivia (S. Mayer in litt. 1999), where it may breed (Mazar Barnett et al. 1998b).  Nests have been found in September-January, with territories of 500-1,000 m in length on suitable stretches of river (Tyler and Tyler 1996).

Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):4
Movement patterns:Altitudinal Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In Argentina, reservoir construction, hydroelectric and irrigation schemes and eutrophication threaten riverine habitats (Tyler and Tyler 1996), with pollution, reduced flows and river channel modifications most prevalent at lower altitudes (Tyler and Tyler 1996, S. Mayer in litt. 1999).  If forest is required for breeding, logging, livestock-grazing and subsequent soil erosion are significant problems (Tyler and Tyler 1996, S. Mayer in litt. 1999).  The introduction of exotic sport fish (e.g. trout) probably has a negative effect (A. Jaramillo in litt. 1999).  However, much habitat is protected by its inaccessibility (Ergueta and Morales 1996), and, in Bolivia, these threats have limited effects on few rivers (A. Jaramillo in litt. 1999).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
It occurs in Baritú, Calilegua and Campo de los Alisos National Parks and Portrero de Yala Provincial Park, Argentina, and Tariquía National Reserve, Bolivia (Wege and Long 1995).  The species's ecology is being studied in Tarija (Ergueta and Morales 1996).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Establish a river management system enabling birds to access rivers with high water quality and adjacent alder Alnus areas.  Redesign and implement the planned national park in the Nevados del Aconquija to include part of its range.  Survey rivers between known localities and Campo de los Alisos National Park, Tucumán (J. C. Chebez in litt. 1999).  Develop a public awareness campaign related to land-use and the protection of watersheds.  Reassess global population size and trend.

Amended [top]

Amended reason: Map revised and added missing Taxonomic Notes and associated references.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2017. Cinclus schulzii (amended version of 2016 assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T22708169A111053629. . Downloaded on 20 September 2018.
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