||(Hartlaub & Finsch, 1871)
||Rarotonga Monarch, Cook Islands Flycatcher, Kakerori, Rarotonga Flycatcher
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
||Identification: 14 cm. Inquisitive, grey-and-white flycatcher. First year, orange plumage with yellow base to lower mandible, 2nd year, orange plumage with evenly steel-blue bill (in hand, appearing black in field), 3rd year, mixed grey-and-orange plumage, black bill, 4th year, grey and white plumage, black bill. Similar spp. None, the smallest landbird on Rarotonga, could only be confused as an adult (momentarily) with adult Rarotonga Starling Aplonis cinerascens. Voice Wide variety of discordant calls. Loud male territorial call given repeatedly during pre-breeding period, and onomatopoeically rendered as Kakerori, the bird's Maori name.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Robertson, H., Saul, E., O'Brien, M. & Ghestemme, T.
||Derhé, M., Harding, M., Mahood, S., O'Brien, A., Pilgrim, J., Shutes, S., Stattersfield, A., North, A.
Once among the rarest birds of the world, this species has been brought back from the brink of extinction. It has been downlisted to Vulnerable as the population has increased in recent years owing to intensive conservation efforts with no evidence of a continuing decline for the last five years. However, it still has a very small population and range and remains threatened by chance events such as cyclones and other stochastic factors that could drive it to qualify as Critically Endangered or even Extinct in a short time period. The survival of the species remains dependent on a continuation of intensive conservation efforts.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2012 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2008 – Endangered (EN)
- 2006 – Endangered (EN)
- 2004 – Endangered (EN)
- 2000 – Endangered (EN)
- 1996 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 1994 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 1988 – Threatened (T)
|Range Description:||Pomarea dimidiata is endemic to Rarotonga, Cook Islands, where it is largely restricted to the Totokoitu, Turoa, western Avana, and Taipara Valleys. It was common until the middle of the 19th century, but thought to be extinct in the early 1900s (Robertson et al. 1994). A recovery plan initiated in 1987 improved breeding success and recruitment, resulting in the increase of 177 birds in 1998 to 308 in 2003 (H. Robertson in litt. 2007). In 2001, ten birds were translocated from Rarotonga to Atiu, 200 km north-east, and similar numbers, consisting of one to two-year-old birds, were translocated to Atiu in 2002 and in 2003 (Robertson et al 2006), and another 10 yearlings were moved from Rarotonga to Atiu in 2011. A census in February-March 2015 found a minimum of 156 birds on Atiu, including 117 adults (H. Robertson in litt. 2016).|
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||No|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||2|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Number of Locations:||2||♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||No|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No||♦ Lower elevation limit (metres):||10|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||250|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population was estimated at 306 in August 2004, but a subsequent series of devastating cyclones in early 2005 lead to a decline, especially on Rarotonga. The total population began to increase in 2007 due to good recruitment on Atiu (where 30 birds were transferred in 2001-2003) and a stable population on Rarotonga. In 2011 the population was estimated at c.380 birds, including 69 yearlings (Robertson et al. 2011, H. Robertson in litt. 2011), suggesting a population of c.310 mature individuals. The number of mature individuals is now estimated at 500 (H. Robertson in litt. 2016).|
Trend Justification: The population has grown rapidly owing to intensive management, particularly predator control, and the transfer of 30 young birds to Atiu Island in 2001-2003. The population on Rarotonga declined as a result of five cyclones in one month in early 2005, and subsequent poor breeding in 2005-2006; however, the population has now been increasing since 2007, owing to intensive conservation action.
|Current Population Trend:||Increasing|
|♦ Number of mature individuals:||500||♦ Continuing decline of mature individuals:||No|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations:||No||♦ Population severely fragmented:||No|
|♦ No. of subpopulations:||2||♦ Continuing decline in subpopulations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:||No||♦ All individuals in one subpopulation:||No|
|♦ No. of individuals in largest subpopulation:||1-89|