|Scientific Name:||Semioptera wallacii Gould, 1859|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor(s):||Burung Indonesia, Bashari, B.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Symes, A., Taylor, J., Martin, R|
This species appears to rely on primary forest, and is listed as Near Threatened following recent information on forest loss in its small range, in which suitable habitat is declining and may already be very fragmented. On-going forest loss is inferred to be driving continued declines in its population.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Semioptera wallacii is found on Halmahera, Kasiruta and Bacan, Indonesia (del Hoyo et al. 2009). On Halmahera it is relatively common in primary, logged primary and secondary forest, with an estimate of 24,128 - 61,553 individuals from Aketajawe-Lolobata National Park (Bashari 2012).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is reported to be generally common on Halmahera and Bacan (Frith and Beehler 1998). A survey of the two National Parks Aketajawe-Lolobata estimated a population of 24,128 - 61,553 individuals within the 1,673 km2 protected area (Bashari 2012).|
Trend Justification: The population is suspected to be in decline owing to on-going habitat loss (Frith and Beehler 1998). A remote sensing study tracked forest loss in the Northern Maluku Endemic Bird Area between 1990 and 2003, and projected rates of deforestation over the next three generations for restricted range bird species found in this region (Vetter 2009). This study estimated the rate of forest loss within the species's geographic and elevation range to be c.8.4% between 1990 and 2003, and projected the loss of c.16.6% of forest in its range over the next three generations (estimated at 23.7 years) (Vetter 2009).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species inhabits primary, secondary and logged rainforest in the lowlands and hills, from sea-level to 1,000-1,200 m (del Hoyo et al. 2009, Burung Indonesia in litt. 2014). Although it occurs in secondary forest, lek sites have only been found in primary forest (Burung Indonesia in litt. 2014). Lek sites are associated with large trees, such as Pometia pinnata, Vatica papuana, Diospyros sp., Canarium sp., Palaquium sp., Alangium javanicum, Helicia moluccana, Diospyros pilosanthera, Myristica sp., and Syzigium sp. (Bashari, 2011).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||7.9|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
The primary threat to the species is habitat loss through commercial logging for timber, and clearance for shifting agriculture, mining, settlements and plantations of coconut, clove, nutmeg and timber species (Vetter 2009, Burung Indonesia in litt. 2014, H. Bashari in litt. 2016). Another potential threat is posed by wildfires, which have devastated areas on other Indonesian islands, with the chances of such fires being increased by the conversion of forest to scrub and grassland and the opening up of forests for road construction, as well as selective logging and fragmentation (Vetter 2009). Certain lek sites may be disturbed by unregulated tourism activities.
Conservation Actions Underway
The species occurs in Aketajawe Lolobata National Park (Halmahera) where it is used as a flagship species for promoting the National Park and it is often used in events by the local government as well (Burung Indonesia in litt. 2014, H. Bashari in litt. 2016). The National Park authority has a monitoring program with a focus on lek site rehabilitation (H. Bashari in litt. 2016).
Conservation Actions Proposed
Carry out surveys to assess the species's population size. Conduct regular surveys to monitor the population trend. Track rates of habitat loss through regular studies of satellite images. Increase the area of suitable habitat with protected status.
|Amended reason:||Updated the Habitats and ecology, Population, Conservation Action and Threats text fields, and added additional references.|
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2017. Semioptera wallacii. (amended version published in 2016) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T22706140A111361745.Downloaded on 23 October 2017.|
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