Vireo caribaeus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Vireonidae

Scientific Name: Vireo caribaeus Bond & Meyer de Schauensee, 1942
Common Name(s):
English San Andres Vireo, Saint Andrew Vireo, San Andrés Vireo, St. Andrew Vireo
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Identification information: 12.5 cm. Typical vireo with wing-bars and loral stripe. Predominantly olive-green upperparts, including head. Two white wing-bars and pale fringes to flight feathers. Pale yellow stripe from bill base to eye. Whitish underparts, washed pale yellow on flanks and belly. Greyish brown iris. Voice Three different types, unusual among vireos. Repetitive chatter of single-syllable notes, given 2-20 times. Two-syllabled song, se-wi, se-wi, uttered 1-15 times. Variable three-syllabled song. Both sexes have single contact note.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable D2 ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Rosselli, A. & Gómez-Montes, C.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Gilroy, J., Sharpe, C.J., Derhé, M.
This species is restricted to an extremely small range on a single island where it is susceptible to stochastic events and could rapidly become more threatened. However, it has been found to be one of the most common species on the island, tolerant of habitat degradation and there is no evidence of any significant declines. For these reasons it has been downlisted to Vulnerable.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Vireo caribaeus is endemic to San Andrés, Colombia, an island in the west Caribbean, east of Nicaragua. It is apparently now restricted to 17 km2, where it is common. A study estimated between 8,200 and 14,800 individuals on the island (Rosselli 1998).

Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:21
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Number of Locations:1Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The species was estimated at 8,200-14,700 by Rosselli (1998); however, this be considered as preliminary as the methodology did not account for detectability differences between habitats nor did it account for the effective population percentage (Gómez-Montes 2011). As such, the population is precautionarily placed in the band 2,500-9,999 individuals, equivalent to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals.

Trend Justification:  There is no current evidence for significant declines in the area of suitable habitat available, or of changes in abundance, thus the population is suspected to be stable.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:1500-7000Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
No. of subpopulations:1Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:Yes
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation:100

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Highest densities occur in coconut plantations with scattered trees and scrub, dry lowland woodland and inland mangrove swamps, but lower densities occur in mesophytic woodland and brushy pastures (Rosselli 1998, Moreno and Devenish 2003). Within this wide range of habitats it has a preference for areas of dense understorey vegetation (Rosselli1998). Breeding territory size ranges from 0.22 to 0.50 ha (Russel et al. 1979, Gómez-Montes and Moreno 2008). Breeding takes place from February to June (Gómez-Montes and Moreno 2008, Gomez et al. 2010) and seems to be triggered by photoperiod and by the first significant rains after the dry season (Gomez et al. 2010). Nests are built suspended from the forks of branches, in both mangroves and shrubby bushes (Barlow and Nash 1985). Dry scrub with a ground cover of dead leaves is the preferred nesting habitat (Gómez-Montes and Moreno 2008). Next failure rates of 47% have been recorded, with most failure due to abandonment of eggs (Gómez-Montes and Moreno 2008). It gleans actively for caterpillars and other arthropods and feeds fruit to its chicks as well as insects (Rosselli 1998, Gómez et al. 2010).

Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):4.2
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): San Andrés is densely populated and developed, with little remaining natural vegetation. The northern 20% of the island is urbanised, with tourist developments south of the urban zone. Habitat on most of the remainder of the island has been converted for agriculture and coconut-palm cultivation but, within this area, small and scattered patches of remnant habitat (mostly associated with inland mangroves) and scrub are found. The human population, tourism and agriculture are all expanding. Coastal mangroves are also being destroyed by waste oil and a hot-water outflow, although the extent to which the species is affected is unknown. Suitable habitats for the San Andrés population are highly fragmented. Exceptional events during the breeding season such as slash-and-burn and hurricanes may have an impact on the breeding population (Rosselli 1998).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
In 2000, the San Andrés and Providencia Archipelago was declared as the Seaflower Biosphere Reserve. In 2003, and education project was carried out carried out an education project to increase awareness about the species (Moreno and Devenish 2003). There are ongoing projects investigating the species's biology and breeding ecology (Gomez and Moreno 2008, Gomez et al. 2010). In 2006 the Chincherry bird reserve was established for this species (C. Gómez-Montes in litt. 2012).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Clarify its distribution, abundance and ecological requirements. Assess the extent and status of native habitat remaining. Identify realistic plantation management practises that will favour this species. Monitor changes in land use and consider active measures to protect remaining habitat. Dry scrubland habitat, which is vital for breeding and currently unprotected, should be conserved (Gómez-Montes and Moreno 2008).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Vireo caribaeus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22705203A94005439. . Downloaded on 23 June 2018.
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