|Scientific Name:||Lanius ludovicianus Linnaeus, 1766|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S.|
Data from the Breeding Bird Survey suggests that this species is undergoing a moderately rapid population decline. Therefore, it has been uplisted to Near Threatened.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species is a widespread breeder across much of the USA and Mexico, extending into southern Canada in the breeding season. Northern populations are migratory whereas those in the south of the range are generally resident.|
Native:Canada; Mexico; United States
Vagrant:Bahamas; Guatemala; Turks and Caicos Islands
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population is estimated to number 4,200,000 mature individuals (Rosenberg et al. 2016).|
Trend Justification: This species has undergone a large and statistically significant decrease over the last 40 years in North America (-71.2% decline over 40 years; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven .
Data from the Breeding Bird Survey suggests that the population is currently declining at an overall rate of c. 24% (-30.5 to -17.5%) over 3 generations (11 years), thus an ongoing decline of 20-29% is estimated here.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species occupies a variety of habitats generally associated with open areas and short vegetation (Yosef and International Shrike Working Group 2017). This includes, parkland, pastures, open woodland, orchards and agricultural land with hedgerows and perching sites (such as fences) and impaling sites for storing food (e.g. barbed wire or vegetation with thorns/spines) (Yosef 1996, Yosef and International Shrike Working Group 2017).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||3.6|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||Several ideas have been presented that may account for declines in this species (see Lymn and Temple 1991), including pesticides (Anderson and Duzan 1978), loss of breeding habitat to agricultural land (though it has been concluded that this may not be limiting Loggerhead Shrikes [Brooks and Temple 1990]), West Nile Virus (Smallwood and Nakamoto 2009), and habitat loss and fire ant presence in wintering habitats (Lymn and Temple 1991). The species may have also been persecuted and shot in the past, but this has likely reduced (Yosef 1996). While the use of certain pesticides is now prohibited in U.S.A. the potential effects of other threats may be likely to continue into the future.|
Conservation Actions Underway
No targeted measures are known, but it was incorporated into the Canadian Wildlife Service's Operation Grasslands Community (Yosef 1996).
Conservation Actions Proposed
Monitor the species to get clear estimates of population size and trends across its range. Investigate any possible further threats to this species that could be contributing to population declines, including investigating whether other pesticides could be affecting the species. Investigate the species's ecology, including work on its migration, competition with other species and its dietary requirements (see Yosef 1996). Potentially further reduce the use of pesticides, and restore areas of habitat for the species (see Yosef and International Shrike Working Group 2017). This species could be reared in captivity (Yosef 1996), but it is uncertain if this is an action that is required imminently.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2017. Lanius ludovicianus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T22705042A118908179.Downloaded on 20 August 2018.|
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