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Lanius ludovicianus 

Scope: Global
Language: English
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_onStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Laniidae

Scientific Name: Lanius ludovicianus Linnaeus, 1766
Common Name(s):
English Loggerhead Shrike
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2017-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J.
Justification:
Data from the Breeding Bird Survey suggests that this species is undergoing a moderately rapid population decline. Therefore, it has been uplisted to Near Threatened.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is a widespread breeder across much of the USA and Mexico, extending into southern Canada in the breeding season. Northern populations are migratory whereas those in the south of the range are generally resident.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Canada; Mexico; United States
Vagrant:
Bahamas; Guatemala; Turks and Caicos Islands
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:9930000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):2000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population is estimated to number 4,200,000 mature individuals (Rosenberg et al. 2016).

Trend Justification:  This species has undergone a large and statistically significant decrease over the last 40 years in North America (-71.2% decline over 40 years; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven .

Data from the Breeding Bird Survey suggests that the population is currently declining at an overall rate of c. 24% (-30.5 to -17.5%) over 3 generations (11 years), thus an ongoing decline of 20-29% is estimated here.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:4200000Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species occupies a variety of habitats generally associated with open areas and short vegetation (Yosef and International Shrike Working Group 2017). This includes, parkland, pastures, open woodland, orchards and agricultural land with hedgerows and perching sites (such as fences) and impaling sites for storing food (e.g. barbed wire or vegetation with thorns/spines) (Yosef 1996, Yosef and International Shrike Working Group 2017).
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):3.6
Movement patterns:Full Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Several ideas have been presented that may account for declines in this species (see Lymn and Temple 1991), including pesticides (Anderson and Duzan 1978), loss of breeding habitat to agricultural land (though it has been concluded that this may not be limiting Loggerhead Shrikes [Brooks and Temple 1990]), West Nile Virus (Smallwood and Nakamoto 2009), and habitat loss and fire ant presence in wintering habitats (Lymn and Temple 1991). The species may have also been persecuted and shot in the past, but this has likely reduced (Yosef 1996). While the use of certain pesticides is now prohibited in U.S.A. the potential effects of other threats may be likely to continue into the future.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
No targeted measures are known, but it was incorporated into the Canadian Wildlife Service's Operation Grasslands Community (Yosef 1996).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Monitor the species to get clear estimates of population size and trends across its range. Investigate any possible further threats to this species that could be contributing to population declines, including investigating whether other pesticides could be affecting the species. Investigate the species's ecology, including work on its migration, competition with other species and its dietary requirements (see Yosef 1996). Potentially further reduce the use of pesticides, and restore areas of habitat for the species (see Yosef and International Shrike Working Group 2017). This species could be reared in captivity (Yosef 1996), but it is uncertain if this is an action that is required imminently.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2017. Lanius ludovicianus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T22705042A118908179. . Downloaded on 22 June 2018.
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