Pardalotus quadragintus 

Scope: Global

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Pardalotidae

Scientific Name: Pardalotus quadragintus
Species Authority: Gould, 1838
Common Name(s):
English Forty-spotted Pardalote
Taxonomic Source(s): Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Identification information: 9-10 cm. Greenish pardalote with spotted wings. Sexes, adults and juveniles similar. Olive-green upperparts, finely scalloped darker, greyish-white below. Yellow wash around face and undertail-coverts. Black wings and tail with prominent white spots on tips of feathers. Similar spp. Juvenile Spotted Pardalote P. punctatus is more boldly patterned above, with greyish ear-coverts, buff-white spots on crown and orange-brown rump. Calls differ. Voice Inadequately known. Double-noted, territorial piping, second note marginally lower-pitched than first (P. punctatus has second note appreciably lower).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A2ac;B1ab(ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(ii,iii,iv,v);C1 ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Taylor, J. & Butchart, S.
Contributor(s): Bryant, S. & Rounsevell, D.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Allinson, T, Benstead, P., Garnett, S., McClellan, R., Pilgrim, J., Symes, A., Taylor, J.
This species is classified as Endangered because it has a very small range. Its distribution is severely fragmented and it is restricted to a very small area when breeding. Although the population of this species is presently stable, a significant proportion of its habitat continues to be destroyed and at least two locations have recently been lost.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Pardalotus quadragintus is endemic to Tasmania, Australia, and some larger offshore islands. It is present in all available habitat on Maria (974 individuals in 2009) and Bruny Islands (450 individuals in 2009), which contain over 90% of the population. Small remnant colonies remain on Flinders Island (c.70 birds between 1993-1997, however, following extensive bushfires in 2002, just 14 individuals were estimated in 2009), and on the mainland of Tasmania at Tinderbox Peninsula (46 individuals in 2009), Howden (10 individuals in 2009) and Coningham (6 individuals in 2009) (Bryant and Tzaros 2010). Colonies found previously at Lime Bay and Mt Nelson were not found in the most recent surveys and may have expired. The population was thought to be stable: In 1986, a census counted 3,520 individuals in 110 colonies in 38 km2. In 1994-1997, 3,840 individuals were counted in 121 colonies in 41 km2 (Garnett and Crowley 2000). However, in 2009 only 1,486 birds were found at 54 of the 102 colonies surveyed, representing a loss of 47% of colonies (Bryant and Tzaros 2010).

Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:41Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:330
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Number of Locations:5Continuing decline in number of locations:Yes
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):1000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:In 1994-1997, 3,840 individuals were counted (Garnett and Crowley 2000). However, the population has recently declined by >50% and in 2009 only 1,486 birds were counted (Bryant 2010). The number of mature individuals is therefore likely to be between 1,000-1,500.

Trend Justification:  In 1994-1997, 3,840 individuals were counted (Garnett and Crowley 2000). However, the population has recently declined by >50% and in 2009 only 1,486 birds were counted (Bryant 2010). The global population is thus estimated to have declined by 50-79% in three generations (12 years).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:1000-1500Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:Yes
No. of subpopulations:5Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It is found exclusively in open white gum Eucalyptus viminalis forest or woodland. E. viminalis provides most of its food in the form of invertebrates, lerp secretions and manna, as well as hollows for nesting.

Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):3.9
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): About 60% of occupied habitat is reserved, but on private land, habitat continues to be lost because of clearance, sheep-grazing (preventing E. viminalis regeneration), subdivision and urban development. During the 1985 breeding season it was noted that timber clearance was underway or had taken place in or adjacent to six colonies on Bruny Island (Brown and Rounsevell undated). Extended periods of low rainfall have resulted in habitat degradation, and in the long-term climate change may be the greatest threat (Bryant and Tzaros 2010). The Noisy Miner Manorina melanocephala and introduced Laughing Kookaburra Dacelo novaeguineae are potential competitors or predators. Wildfire that retards regrowth of E. viminalis can also be a threat, particularly for isolated populations. Human disturbance is likely to have contributed to its decline in urban and public use areas (Bryant 2010).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
A key site on north Bruny Island has been acquired and declared a state reserve for the species with an approved management plan. Key sites have also been acquired on Flinders Island. Guidelines have been established for production forestry within 5 km of the coast between Bicheno and Southport and for the Maria Island National Park Management Plan. Further E. viminalis clearance in or near existing colonies is forbidden. A community network has been established on Bruny Island. A recovery plan has been implemented and a new integrated plan prepared.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Continue to monitor populations at 10-year intervals. Map E. viminalis communities in greater detail. Determine relationship between site variables and food productivity. Determine juvenile dispersal, home range and colony dynamics. Re-establish E. viminalis at sites within 5 km of the coast between Bicheno and Southport, particularly near existing colonies. Manage existing stands by limiting grazing and firewood-collection and managing fuel levels with a mosaic of low-intensity burns. Develop a management strategy for E. viminalis forest. Ensure habitat regrowth (on Bruny Island) is permitted (Brown and Rounsevell undated). Monitor colonies on Bruny Island, with priority given to those over 50 birds (Brown and Rounsevell undated). Maintain community awareness of the species and involvement in recovery actions.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Pardalotus quadragintus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22704493A39298549. . Downloaded on 26 October 2016.
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