||Atrichornis rufescens (Ramsay, 1867)
||Rufous Scrub-bird, Rufous Scrubbird
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Andren, M., Baker, B., Ford, H., Garnett, S., Holmes, T., Watson, D., Woinarski, J., Stuart, A. & Newman, M.
||Garnett, S., Mahood, S., McClellan, R., O'Brien, A., Symes, A., Taylor, J., North, A.
This species has been uplisted to Endangered it has a very small, severely fragmented area of occupancy, and is experiencing habitat destruction and a continuing population decline. Inappropriate management continues to threaten the quality of its habitat and there are concerns that drying caused by increasingly erratic climate conditions may lead to its disappearance from much of its current range (e.g. recent research suggests it may suspend its breeding when winter rainfall is low).
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2012 – Endangered (EN)
- 2008 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2004 – Near Threatened (NT)
- 2000 – Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
- 1996 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1994 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1988 – Threatened (T)
|Range Description:||Atrichornis rufescens occurs in isolated populations in north-eastern New South Wales and south-eastern Queensland, Australia. A. r. rufescens occurs in the Gibraltar Ranges, Border Ranges, the northern part of the McPherson Range and in parts of the Main Range, but formerly occurred in lowland habitats of the Richmond and Tweed River basins. A. r. ferrieri occurs on Barrington Tops, Hastings Range and in the Dorrigo/ Ebor area (Garnett et al. 2011). The species is mostly confined to areas above 600 m but an observation at 240 m has been documented (Boles and Tynan 1994). In the early 19th century, the population size may have been c.12,000 pairs, but surveys from 1979-1983 estimated it at c.2,500 pairs, A. r. rufescens numbering 730 pairs and A. r. ferrieri 1,720 pairs at a density of about 6 pairs/ km2 (Ferrier 1984, in Garnett et al. 2011). Declines are suspected in both subspecies (Ekert 2005, in Garnett et al. 2011). Some subpopulations of A. r. rufescens are thought to have disappeared within the last 2 decades, including those at Mt Warning and Spicers Gap, while declines in A. r. ferrieri are inferred because of a reduction in area occupied by calling males in New England National Park (Garnett and Crowley 2000) and the recent disappearance of birds below 1,100m in the Gloucester Tops (Newman et al. 2014). There is evidence of altitudinal retreat throughout its range (A. Stuart in litt. 2016).|
|♦ Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:||410||♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||33600|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No||♦ Lower elevation limit (metres):||600|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||1300|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||In recent monitoring across accessible habitat supporting known populations throughout the range, less than 100 territories have been, and none in areas adjacent to known populations (M. Newman in litt. 2016). It is estimated that there may be a maximum of 2500 pairs or 5000 individuals, though this may be optimistic (M. Andren and M. Newman in litt. 2016). Core populations remain at similar territorial densities to base line levels found by Ferrier (1985, Newman et al. 2014). However, the species is no longer found at many locations where it was found by Ferrier 30 years earlier. Consequently there appears to be a relentless ongoing decline in the area of occupancy (M. Andren and M. Newman in litt. 2016).|
Trend Justification: In the early 19th century, the population size was probably c.12,000 pairs, but surveys from 1979-1983 estimated it at c.2,500 pairs, rufescens numbering 730 pairs (Garnett and Crowley 2000). Declines are suspected in both subspecies (Ekert 2005, in Garnett et al. 2011). Some subpopulations of A. r. rufescens are thought to have disappeared recently, including those at Mt Warning and Spicers Gap, while declines in A. r. ferrieri are inferred because of a reduction in area occupied by calling males in New England National Park (Garnett and Crowley 2000).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|♦ Continuing decline of mature individuals:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations:||No||♦ Population severely fragmented:||Yes|
|♦ No. of subpopulations:||6||♦ Continuing decline in subpopulations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:||No||♦ All individuals in one subpopulation:||No|
|♦ No. of individuals in largest subpopulation:||1-89|