Formicarius rufifrons 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Formicariidae

Scientific Name: Formicarius rufifrons
Species Authority: Blake, 1957
Common Name(s):
English Rufous-fronted Antthrush
Taxonomic Source(s): SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #
Identification information: 18 cm. A dark brown hen-like terrestrial bird. Upperparts rich brown with orange-rufous forecrown. More rufescent on uppertail-coverts. Underparts sooty grey, browner on lower belly. Dark cocked tail. Similar spp. Black-faced Antthrush F. analis has a black area around throat, lacks the rufous front and has black, instead of cinnamon-rufous underwing-coverts. Voice The song is a rising and then falling series of clear, monotonic whistles of c.5 seconds. Hints Very hard to see, best located by voice.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Gerhart, N., Jammes, L., Lloyd, H. & Schulenberg, T.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Butchart, S., Gilroy, J., Sharpe, C J
This species is considered Near Threatened as it is known from only a small range, and is apparently rare and patchily distributed. However, the range is not yet severely fragmented or restricted to few locations (Collar et al. 1992). For these reasons, the species is classified as Near Threatened.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Near Threatened (NT)
2004 Near Threatened (NT)
2000 Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Vulnerable (VU)
1988 Threatened (T)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Formicarius rufifrons was formerly known only from the río Madre de Dios and its tributaries, Peru, but during the 1990s it was found on the upper rio Juruá in Acre, Brazil (Whittaker and Oren 1999), río Tahuamanu in Pando, Bolivia (L. Jammes in litt. 1999, T. S. Schulenberg in litt. 1999) and río Urubamba in Cuzco, Peru (H. Lloyd in litt. 1999, N. Gerhart in litt. 2000), greatly extending its known range. It is generally rare and localised within this range.

Countries occurrence:
Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil; Peru
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 11800
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Lower elevation limit (metres): 350
Upper elevation limit (metres): 400
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'rare' (Stotz et al. 1996).

Trend Justification:  This species is suspected to lose 0.1-8.6% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (10 years) based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). Given the susceptibility of the species to fragmentation and/or edge effects, it is therefore suspected to decline by <25% over three generations.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: Unknown Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation: 100

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is a rare and rather unpredictably distributed inhabitant of riverine floodplain thickets, where tall forest with shaded understorey lies adjacent to second-growth vegetation with a dense understorey (Kratter 1995) of, for example, Guadua bamboo or Heliconia (Schulenberg et al. 2007).

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
Generation Length (years): 3.2
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In some areas, it is threatened by actual and impending human settlement and agricultural development, but most parts of the range are remote and as yet undisturbed.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
Significant populations are protected within Manu National Park and Tambopata-Candamo Reserved Zone in Peru (H. Lloyd in litt. 1999).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct surveys of suitable habitats within and surrounding the known range to determine its true distribution and abundance. Conduct ecological studies to determine this species's precise habitat requirements. Increase the area of suitable habitat that has protected status.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Formicarius rufifrons. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22703203A38079600. . Downloaded on 02 December 2015.
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