Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Thamnophilidae

Scientific Name: Terenura sicki
Species Authority: Teixeira & Gonzaga, 1983
Common Name(s):
English Orange-bellied Antwren, Alagoas Antwren
Taxonomic Source(s): SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #
Identification information: 10 cm. Small, brightly coloured antwren. Male mostly black above, with white streaking on head, nape and mantle. Whitish face and auriculars, streaked black. Black moustachial stripe. Blackish wings and tail. Faint whitish wing-bars and edgings. White underparts with black stripes on sides of breast. Female has blackish crown, streaked white. Rest of upperparts rufous. Rich orange-rufous underparts, with paler, more buffy throat. Black stripes on sides of breast. Voice Soft, uniform trill lasting 3-4 seconds, and fast, repeated call, tzí-de-de-de tzí-de-de-de.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,v);C2a(i) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Roda, S., Studer, A. & Whittaker, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Capper, D., Pople, R., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A.
This species is listed as Endangered because it has a very small and severely fragmented range and population. It is known from eight sites, but habitat at several of these is rapidly disappearing (Collar et al. 1992).

Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Endangered (EN)
2004 Endangered (EN)
2000 Endangered (EN)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Vulnerable (VU)
1988 Threatened (T)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Terenura sicki has been recorded at eight localities from the south-east escarpment of the Borborema plateau in Alagoas, north along this coastal range to Pernambuco, north-east Brazil. It is fairly common in the small and fragmented forests at Murici and regularly recorded at Pedra Talhada, and more numerous at Usina Serra Grande/Engenho Coimbra (A. Whittaker in litt. 1999, S. Roda in litt. 2007), Água Azul, Mata do Estado (Roda et al. 2003, S. Roda in litt. 2007) and Frei Caneca/Pedra Dantas in 2003 (Cotinga 2003 20:13, S. Roda in litt. 2007). It was also recorded from Novo Lino in 1986.

Countries occurrence:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 130
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Number of Locations: 8
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Lower elevation limit (metres): 400
Upper elevation limit (metres): 700
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population is estimated to number 250-999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 375-1,499 individuals in total, rounded here to 350-1,500 individuals.

Trend Justification:  A rapid and on-going population decline is suspected, owing to rates of habitat loss.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 250-999 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: Yes
No. of subpopulations: 8 Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation: 1-89

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It inhabits the upper strata of upland humid forest at 400-700 m, although there is a recent record from lowland forest at 76 m (Albano 2009). Despite occurring in forests that have suffered severe selective logging, it is not present in degraded secondary growth. It is usually seen following mixed-species flocks, even during the breeding season, but isolated pairs have been observed. The diet includes insects such as beetles and cockroaches. Breeding probably occurs from November-February. A nest has been found in the dense foliage of a middle-stratum tree, c.10-12 m above the ground.

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
Generation Length (years): 4.8
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There has been massive clearance of Atlantic forest in Alagoas and Pernambuco, largely as a result of logging and conversion to sugarcane plantations and pastureland. Forest at Murici has been reduced from 70 km2 in the 1970s, to a mere 30 km2 of highly disturbed and fragmented habitat in 1999 (J. M. Goerck in litt. 1999). The site is severely threatened by fires spreading from adjacent plantations and further logging (new roads were evident in January 1999) (J. M. Goerck in litt. 1999, A. Whittaker in litt. 1999). Just one pair has been encountered here in recent years, and the species is feared to be disappearing from the reserve (Albano 2009). There is significant (and largely unsurveyed) forest remaining at Usina Serra Grande (A. Whittaker in litt. 1999), but the current condition of forest at Água Azul and in Novo Lino is unknown.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
It is protected under Brazilian law, and occurs in Pedra Talhada Biological Reserve, where significant areas are being reforested with native trees (A. Studer per A. Whittaker in litt. 1999). Protection at this reserve is enforced by guards and apparently welcomed by local communities (A. Studer per A. Whittaker in litt. 1999). Although land at Murici remains privately-owned and vulnerable to clearance, international efforts to effect its conservation are ongoing (A. Studer per A. Whittaker in litt. 1999). Frei Caneca is a private reserve protecting 630 ha of forest (Cotinga 2003 20:13).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey Novo Lino and any other remnant patches of habitat in Alagoas and Pernambuco to ascertain the species's presence, and identify suitable areas for conservation action. Ensure the de facto protection of Murici Ecological Station, and protect Mata do Estado and Pedra Dantas (S. Roda in litt. 2007). Continue the reforestation programme and de facto protection at Pedra Talhada.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Terenura sicki. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22701646A38086025. . Downloaded on 13 October 2015.
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