Cephalopterus glabricollis 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Cotingidae

Scientific Name: Cephalopterus glabricollis
Species Authority: Gould, 1851
Common Name(s):
English Bare-necked Umbrellabird
Identification information: 36-41 cm. Large, ornate, black cotinga. Male glossy black. Large patch of (usually hanging) bright red bare skin from lower throat to upper chest, which is inflated during displays. Long and curled forward crown feathers (hence its vernacular name). Female smaller, duller and crown feathers reduced to frontal tuft. Voice Displaying males deliver low and far-carrying hooom hoots, accompanied by other staccato notes. Calls include grunts and coughs. Hints Best found on fruiting trees or by locating display arenas through calls.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered C2a(ii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2013-11-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S.
Contributor(s): Angehr, G., Arévalo, E., Chaves-Campos, J. & Criado, J.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Isherwood, I., Mahood, S., Pople, R., Stuart, T., Taylor, J.
This species has been uplisted to Endangered because new information suggests that it has a very small population, which is suspected to be in rapid decline owing to continued forest loss and degradation, especially in its lowland non-breeding range.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2012 Endangered (EN)
2008 Vulnerable (VU)
2004 Vulnerable (VU)
2000 Vulnerable (VU)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Vulnerable (VU)
1988 Threatened (T)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Cephalopterus glabricollis breeds locally on the Caribbean slope of the Cordilleras de Guanacaste, Tilarán and Talamanca in Costa Rica, and contiguous mountains in Panama, east to the Fortuna area, Bocas del Toro and Chiriquí (Collar et al. 1992). In the non-breeding season, it descends to the foothills and lowlands of the Caribbean slope of Costa Rica and southern Nicaragua (Múnera-Roldán et al. 2007), and in Panama it occurs east to Veraguas and Coclé (Ridgely and Gwynne 1989, Angehr and Jordán 1998). Isolated records from the Dota mountains, Costa Rica (Slud 1964) and from the Cordillera de Tolé, Panama (Wege 1993) likely correspond to the Caribbean side of those mountains or to the continental divide. It is now uncommon to rare and local throughout its range (Ridgely and Gwynne 1989, Stiles and Skutch 1989). This species’s breeding population in Costa Rican Important Bird Areas (IBAs) was assessed in 2007 and estimated at 740-1,430 mature individuals (J. Criado et al. in litt. 2007); however, in 2009 this was revised to 190-330 mature individuals (Sánchez et al. 2009). In contrast, the 2007 estimate for the breeding population in the IBAs of Panama was given as 1,050-4,245 mature individuals, which is regarded by some as an overestimate (J. Criado et al. in litt. 2007), and is limited by a lack of sufficient data from the core of its likely range in Panama, La Amistad International Park, where its breeding areas are mostly inaccessible (G. Angehr in litt. 2011). On the basis of this information, the species's total population is conservatively estimated at fewer than 2,500 mature individuals, and it is suspected to be in rapid decline owing to on-going forest clearance and degradation (G. Angehr in litt. 2011, Unión de Ornitólogos de Costa Rica in litt. 2011).


Countries occurrence:
Costa Rica; Panama
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 14400
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Number of Locations: 11-100
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Lower elevation limit (metres): 100
Upper elevation limit (metres): 2000
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species's breeding population in Costa Rican Important Bird Areas (IBAs) has been estimated at 190-330 mature individuals (Sánchez et al. 2009). The 2007 estimate for the breeding population in the IBAs of Panama was given as 1,050-4,245 mature individuals, which is regarded by some as an overestimate (J. Criado et al. in litt. 2007), and is limited by a lack of sufficient data from the core of its likely range in Panama, La Amistad International Park (G. Angehr in litt. 2011). On the basis of this information, the species's global population is conservatively placed in the band for 1,000-2,499 mature individuals, probably equivalent to a total population of 1,500-3,800 individuals.

Trend Justification:  The population is suspected to be declining rapidly, in line with rates of habitat loss and degradation.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 1000-2499 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
No. of subpopulations: 1 Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: Yes
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation: 100

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It breeds in mature subtropical forest at elevations of 800-2,100 m, and spends the non-breeding season in lowland forest (Fogden and Fogden 1997, Chaves-Campos et al. 2003, Garrigues and Dean 2007, Angehr and Dean 2010), males generally at 100-500 m, and females chiefly below 200 m (Stiles and Skutch 1989). During the breeding season (March-June in Costa Rica [Garrigues and Dean 2007]; April-September in Panama [Angehr and Dean 2010]), males defend display arenas at 'exploded leks' (Crenshaw 2002). A study in Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve found that birds only occupied 20-30% of apparently suitable habitat (Fogden and Fogden 1997). These birds left the breeding areas in late July or August, and returned in March (Fogden and Fogden 1997, Chaves-Campos et al. 2003). The diet is largely frugivorous, but can also include anoles, frogs and large insects (Stiles and Skutch 1989, Crenshaw 2002, Chaves-Campos 2005) Altitudinal movements of radio-tagged birds in Costa Rica apparently coincided with peaks of fruit abundance (Chaves-Campos et al. 2003).

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
Generation Length (years): 4.6
Movement patterns: Altitudinal Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Lowland non-breeding habitat has been greatly reduced and is severely threatened, especially in the north of Costa Rica where 35% of the remaining forest was removed in 1986-1992 (Powell et al. 1995). Primary causes are conversion to banana and, more recently, to pineapple plantations, expansion of cattle-ranches and logging. Habitat corridors linking the species's breeding and non-breeding areas have thus been lost, and remaining forest fragments in the lowlands are being degraded through logging (Unión de Ornitólogos de Costa Rica in litt. 2011). In Panama, remaining lowland and foothill forests on the Caribbean slope are threatened by clearance for agriculture, even in legally protected areas such as the San San Pond Sak Wetlands Ramsar Site (Angehr and Jordán 1998, Angehr 2003). Deforestation may have accelerated within the species's range, owing to the construction of a highway between Punta Peña near Chiriquí Grande and Almirante, and increased subsistence agriculture and cattle-raising within the Ngobe-Bugle Comarca (G. Angehr in litt. 2007). Since c.2001, severe deforestation has been taking place within perhaps half of the species’s range in Panama (G. Angehr in litt. 2011). This has been particularly severe along the cordillera within the Comarca Ngobe-Bugle, in both breeding areas in the highlands and non-breeding areas in the foothills and lowlands, and deforestation has now reached the continental divide in some areas. Forest clearance may even be affecting potential non-breeding areas in La Amistad National Park in Panama (G. Angehr in litt. 2011). The elevation limits of this species's breeding range imply that it may be negatively affected by projected climate change.


Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
Breeding by this species has been recorded inside several protected areas, including Reserva Albeto Manuel Brenes Mesen, Reserva Privada Bosque Eterno de los Niños, Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve, and it also presumably breeds in Braulio Carrillo and La Amistad National Parks, Fortuna Forest Reserve and Palo Seco Protection Forest (Stiles and Levey 1994, Fogden and Fogden 1997, Angehr and Jordán 1998, Angehr 2003, Chaves-Campos et al. 2003, Chaves-Campos in litt. 2007, G. Angehr in litt. 2007, Unión de Ornitólogos de Costa Rica in litt. 2011). In the non-breeding season, it has been recorded in the San San Pond Sak Wetlands Ramsar Site and at La Selva Biological Station (Stiles and Levey 1994, Angehr and Jordán 1998, Angehr 2003). A new protected area has been declared in the lowlands (Maquenque National Park, on the border with Nicaragua), but it is separated from the breeding range by large areas of deforested habitat. However, there is an on-going initiative to create a biological corridor between Maquenque and La Selva biological station which would allow the birds to utilise this protected habitat (Chaves-Campos in litt. 2007).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Carry out surveys throughout its range to estimate the total population size, paying particular attention to its suspected breeding range in Panama. Establish a system of lowland protected areas to conserve this species in the non-breeding season (Wege 1993, Chaves-Campos et al. 2003). Monitor the population at key breeding sites (e.g. Monteverde area) to assess population trends. Monitor rates of habitat loss throughout its range. Encourage further reforestation schemes in the lowlands, at least in Costa Rica, with the aim of restoring habitat corridors.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2013. Cephalopterus glabricollis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T22700933A50412506. . Downloaded on 01 December 2015.
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