Phylloscartes paulista 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Tyrannidae

Scientific Name: Phylloscartes paulista Ihering & Ihering, 1907
Common Name(s):
English Sao Paulo Tyrannulet, São Paulo Tyrannulet
Phylloscartes paulistus BirdLife International (2004)
Phylloscartes paulistus Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993)
Phylloscartes paulistus Stotz et al. (1996)
Phylloscartes paulistus Collar and Andrew (1988)
Phylloscartes paulistus Collar et al. (1994)
Phylloscartes paulistus BirdLife International (2000)
Taxonomic Source(s): SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #
Identification information: 10.5 cm. Small, green-and-yellow tyrannulet. Pale greenish-olive above with lemon-yellow underparts. Lemon-yellow face with dusky loral spot. Narrow, pale yellowish supercilium wraps around rear of prominent, dark auricular crescent. Similar spp. Oustalet's Tyrannulet P. oustaleti is larger, has bolder face pattern, more horizontal posture, and cocked tail is constantly quivered. Voice Subtle but strident fuí-ri-ríp.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Capper, D., Harding, M., Sharpe, C.J., Symes, A.
This species is classified as Near Threatened as it is suspected to be undergoing a moderately rapid population decline as a result of habitat losses. It was previously downlisted from Vulnerable as rates of habitat loss have slowed in some parts of its range, and its use of secondary habitats suggested that it may not be as threatened by the loss of mature forest as previously thought.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Phylloscartes paulista occurs in south-east Brazil, east Paraguay and north-east Argentina. In Brazil, it is found in the Atlantic forests of Espírito Santo south to Santa Catarina (do Rosário 1996; Naka et al. 2011), and is considered fairly common in some protected areas, including the "Paranapiacaba fragment" (the 120,000 ha mosaic of Alto Ribeira, Intervales and Carlos Botelho state parks) and the Ilha do Cardoso (Ridgely and Tudor 1994) in São Paulo and Iguaçu in Paraná. In eastern Paraguay it has been recorded from Canindeyú south to Itapúa (Brooks et al. 1993, Hayes 1995, Lowen et al. 1996), but is uncommon. All Argentine records are from Misiones, where it is rare in Iguazú (Saibene et al. 1996). Due to its inconspicuous voice, its presence is likely to be overlooked, and it probably has a continuous distribution along the slopes of the Serra do Mar and Serra de Paranapicaba massifs at least between southern Rio de Janeiro (Parati) and Paraná.

Countries occurrence:
Argentina; Brazil; Paraguay
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:818000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):YesExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Number of Locations:11-100Continuing decline in number of locations:Yes
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):500
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The global population probably numbers fewer than 10,000 individuals (del Hoyo et al. 2004). It is placed in the band 2,500-9,999 individuals, equating to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals.

Trend Justification:  A moderately rapid and on-going population decline is suspected owing to habitat loss.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:1500-7000Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:Yes
No. of subpopulations:2-100Continuing decline in subpopulations:Yes
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It inhabits the middle storey of the lowland Atlantic forest interior, principally below 400 m, but locally up to 1,000 m (Clay et al. 1998; Naka et al. 2011), and will also use secondary forest.

Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):3.6
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Less than 20% of the original extent of this habitat remains intact (Brown and Brown 1992) owing to agricultural conversion and deforestation for coffee, banana and rubber plantations (Fearnside 1996). Remaining forest suffers from increasing urbanisation, agricultural expansion and associated road building (Dinerstein et al. 1995), but habitat destruction in the Brazilian range of the species has slowed significantly (although continuing in places), and the prospects of future losses are not as dire as in the last decades. Also, the species is known to use second growth, making it less vulnerable to the loss of mature forest.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
It is fairly common at Intervales State Park, Iguaçu National Park and Ilha do Cardoso State Park, Brazil. It is also present in Caaguazú, San Rafael and Ybycuí National Parks, Paraguay; and Iguazú National Park, Argentina, as well as several other (at least nominally) protected areas (del Hoyo et al. 2004).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Effectively protect areas where the species occurs. Study its ecology and its ability to persist in degraded and fragmented habitats.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Phylloscartes paulista. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22699497A93734642. . Downloaded on 24 April 2018.
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