Phylloscartes lanyoni 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Tyrannidae

Scientific Name: Phylloscartes lanyoni
Species Authority: Graves, 1988
Common Name(s):
English Antioquia Bristle-tyrant, Antioquia Bristle-Tyrant
Taxonomic Source(s): SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #
Identification information: 11 cm. Bright yellow-and-olive flycatcher with contrasting grey crown. Incomplete eye-ring. Duskier wings and tail with two yellow wing-bars. Bright yellow underparts. Small, thin bill, black maxilla, flesh lower mandible. Similar spp. Spectacled Bristle-tyrant P. orbitalis has complete eye-ring, narrower whitish-yellow wing-bars, yellowish-olive underparts, and grey crown blending into greenish back. Marble-faced Bristle-tyrant P. ophthalmicus is larger, with distinct black auricular patch. Voice Calls are individual, short, slightly up-slurred weeet.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,v);C2a(i) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Symes, A. & Butchart, S.
Contributor(s): Cortés, O., Mark, T., Salaman, P. & Stiles, E.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Isherwood, I., Pople, R., Sharpe, C J, Stuart, T., Symes, A., Khwaja, N.
This species qualifies as Endangered owing to its very small, severely fragmented range, within which habitat loss is occurring at a rapid rate. Its population is assumed to be very small and declining, and made up of extremely small subpopulations.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Endangered (EN)
2004 Endangered (EN)
2000 Endangered (EN)
1996 Endangered (EN)
1994 Endangered (EN)
1988 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Phylloscartes lanyoni occurs locally on the east and north slopes of the central Andes in Caldas and Antioquia, and on the west slope of the east Andes in Cundinamarca, Boyacá and Santander, Colombia. It is known from the type-series, taken in the lower Cauca Valley at the northern tip of the Andes in 1948, and a few modern localities in the middle and upper Magdalena Valley. It has been seen on several occasions at Río Claro Natural Reserve, and recently also at Anará (Renjifo et al. 2002), Antioquia, as well as near La Victoria, Caldas. It is respectively uncommon and common at El Vergel, Cundinamarca, and Monte del Diablo, Boyacá (Wege and Long 1995, Stiles et al. 1999, P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999) and is also present in Yacopi and La Palma municipalities, Cundinamarca (O. Cortes in litt. 2007).

Countries occurrence:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 850
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Number of Locations: 8
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Lower elevation limit (metres): 450
Upper elevation limit (metres): 900
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species's global population is estimated at a few thousand individuals (del Hoyo et al. 2004). It is placed in the band 1,000-2,499 individuals, equating to 667-1,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 600-1,700 mature individuals.

Trend Justification:  A rapid and ongoing decline is suspected, owing to rates of habitat loss.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 600-1700 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: Yes
No. of subpopulations: 2-100 Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It inhabits semi-deciduous foothill-forest at 450-900 m (Stiles et al. 1999). Observations have been made in tall second growth, regenerating, natural tree gaps, and disturbed remnant forest (O. Cortes in litt. 2007). It is often in mosaics of these habitat-types and pastoral or cultivated land (Stiles et al. 1999), although this use of habitat may reflect availability rather than preference. Nesting has been recorded in March (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999), with four birds in a family group seen in June (F. G. Stiles in litt. 1999). It often joins mixed-species flocks (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999, F. G. Stiles in litt. 1999).

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
Generation Length (years): 3.6
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Logging, livestock-farming, arable cultivation, infrastucture development, oil extraction and mining have all played a part in the destruction of habitat in its range (Stiles et al. 1999). The northern tip of the central Andes has been progressively settled and deforested since the 19th century, although some extensive forests survive (Forero 1989, Wege and Long 1995). The middle Magdalena Valley was rapidly opened up, colonised, logged and farmed during the 1960s and 1970s, with nearly 40,000 km2 of forest cleared in little over a decade, although regeneration has begun following land abandonment in some areas (Stiles et al. 1999).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
It is protected in the small (c.1 km2) Río Claro Natural Reserve, which also buffers adjacent forested areas from colonisation (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999). The c.4 km2 forest at Monte del Diablo has been preserved by local people for hunting, while that at La Victoria is a 0.2 km2 watershed reserve (Wege and Long 1995, Stiles et al. 1999).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Search for the species in any potentially suitable habitat, e.g. the interior of the Serranía de las Quinchas, and isolated remnants at the northern tip of the central Andes. Protect such areas if found (Wege and Long 1995, Stiles et al. 1999). Conduct surveys within the known range to clarify its distribution and conservation status. Study its ecological requirements.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Phylloscartes lanyoni. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22699469A37977938. . Downloaded on 25 May 2016.
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