Elaenia ridleyana 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Tyrannidae

Scientific Name: Elaenia ridleyana
Species Authority: Sharpe, 1888
Common Name(s):
English Noronha Elaenia
Taxonomic Source(s): SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #
Identification information: 17 cm. Dull grey-brown flycatcher. Paler yellow to whitish below. Bold whitish wing-bars. Similar spp. Resembles allopatric Large Elaenia E. spectabilis. Smaller Noronha Vireo Vireo gracilirostris has no wing-bars. Voice Various vocalisations including short, strong thiu-thiu and monotonous üuu, üuu whistles.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable D1 ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Marks, T. & Schulz Neto, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Capper, D., Harding, M., Pople, R., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A., Williams, R.
This species qualifies as Vulnerable owing to its very small population.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Vulnerable (VU)
2004 Vulnerable (VU)
2000 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1988 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Elaenia ridleyana is confined to the Atlantic archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, Brazil, where it is known from the main island and Ilha Rata, the largest associated islet (Olson 1994). It is reportedly the least common of the three resident landbirds. Population estimates vary between slightly over 100 (Ridgely and Tudor 1994) and c.1,000 individuals (Oren 1984). Probably the most comprehensive survey estimated a population of c.480 birds (Antas et al. 1990), although a more recent estimate has suggested a population of c.750 birds (T. Mark in litt. 2003).

Countries occurrence:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 20
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Number of Locations: 1
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population is estimated to number at least 500 mature individuals, roughly equivalent to 750 individuals in total (T. Mark in litt. 2003).

Trend Justification:  The population is suspected to be stable.
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 500 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
No. of subpopulations: 1 Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: Yes
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation: 100

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It inhabits scrub, woodland and gardens. The diet is insects and small fruit, particularly those of the endemic tree Ficus noronhae (Antas et al. 1990). Breeding presumably occurs between February and May (Antas et al. 1990). The nest is constructed with the tendrils of Cucurbitaceae and a few twigs, and located in the bare branches of a Burra, Erythrina or cashew-nut tree (Oren 1982).

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 4.6
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): It was presumably historically more numerous as the island was reportedly covered in forest when discovered in 1503 (Olson 1981). All large trees have been cut and all remaining vegetation is secondary (Olson 1981). There are proposals to further develop tourism and this would cause yet greater damage to its habitat. It may suffer predation from introduced mammals such as rats and cats (A. Schulz Neto in litt. 1999). Children target birds with slingshots and presumably kill some individuals of this species (Olson 1994). Fire may pose a credible threat, and an introduced vine is reported to threaten remaining preferred habitat (T. Mark in litt. 2003).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
Fernando de Noronha is a Marine National Park, although the actual protection that this confers is unknown.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey to provide a more accurate estimate of population size. Clarify the species's habitat requirements (A. Schulz Neto in litt. 1999). Study any problems caused by introduced species and assess methods for their control (A. Schulz Neto in litt. 1999). If appropriate, initiate control measures against introduced species. Effectively protect areas of occupied habitat from development and any other threats. Reduce persecution by children through awareness campaigns.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Elaenia ridleyana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22699268A38040278. . Downloaded on 30 November 2015.
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