Eurylaimus steerii 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Eurylaimidae

Scientific Name: Eurylaimus steerii
Species Authority: Sharpe, 1876
Common Name(s):
English Mindanao Broadbill, Wattled Broadbill
Taxonomic Source(s): Lambert, F.; Woodcock, M. 1996. Pittas, broadbills and asities. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, U.K.
Taxonomic Notes: Eurylaimus steerii (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) has been split into E. steerii and E. samarensis following Lambert and Woodcock (1996).

Identification information: 17 cm. Small, brightly coloured passerine. Black throat and face. Green eye surrounded by large, prominent sky-blue wattle. Large, broad, pale blue bill. Maroon-purple crown, bordered by white nuchal collar. Dark grey mantle, bright chestnut rump and tail. Black wings with prominent white and yellow bar across tertials and secondaries. Lilac underparts becoming yellowish-white on lower belly. Female as male but gleaming white breast and belly. Juvenile duller. Voice Unknown. Hints Unobtrusive, joins mixed feeding flocks. Frequents understorey and middle layers of forest.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2c+3c+4c;C2a(i) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Hutchinson, R.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Bird, J., Davidson, P., Lowen, J., Peet, N., Taylor, J.
This species qualifies as Vulnerable because it has a small, seriously fragmented population, and is declining rapidly as a result of lowland deforestation.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Vulnerable (VU)
2004 Vulnerable (VU)
2000 Vulnerable (VU)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Not Recognized (NR)
1988 Not Recognized (NR)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Eurylaimus steerii is endemic to the Philippines, where it is known from Mindanao and neighbouring Dinagat, Siargao and Basilan (including the islets of Poneas and Malamaui) (Collar et al. 1999). Formerly widespread and fairly common, documented records since 1980 derive from just five sites, three on Mindanao (southern Zamboanga Peninsula, Mt Apo and Bislig) and one on each of Poneas and Siargao, indicating that it is now uncommon and local.

Countries occurrence:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 97100
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Number of Locations: 11-100
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1000
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: A preliminary population estimate of fewer than 10,000 mature individuals is used here, but this requires further documentation.

Trend Justification:  Intense pressures on habitat are suspected to have driven rapid declines in the past. The rate of decline may begin to slow in the future as the few remaining habitat patches are increasingly confined to protected areas.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 2500-9999 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: Yes
No. of subpopulations: 2-100 Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation: 1-89

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It inhabits the lower and middle storeys of primary and adjacent or admixed secondary forest, generally well below 1,000 m, but occasionally up to 1,200 m. There are occasional records from mangroves and even scrub forest on dry, rocky substrates.

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
Generation Length (years): 4.2
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Its entire range has suffered extensive lowland deforestation. In 1988, forest cover had been reduced to an estimated 29% on Mindanao, most of it above 1,000 m. Most remaining lowland forest is now leased to logging concessions or mining applications. Dinagat has been virtually totally deforested owing to illegal logging and chromite surface-mining and little forest remains on Siargao, Basilan or Malamaui. Much of the forest at the key site of Bislig was cleared under concession by 2005 when deforestation  under concession ceased, although forest loss there has since accelerated owing to illegal settlers and illicit logging (R. Hutchinson in litt. 2012). Forest fires, associated with insurgency, are a problem on the Zamboanga Peninsula.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
There are recent records from three protected areas: Mt Apo Natural Park, Pasonanca Natural Park and Siargao Island Protected Landscape. In addition, there are pre-1980 records from Mt Hilong-hilong Watershed Reserve, the Basilan Natural Biotic Area and Mt Matutum Forest Reserve, which is proposed for national park status.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Identify and survey remaining lowland forest tracts, particularly on Siargao and around Mts Hilong-hilong, Sugarloaf, Matutum and Mayo (on Mindanao) to establish its current distribution and status. Investigate its reported use of mangroves and research its ecological requirements. Propose sites supporting key populations for protection, where appropriate. Ensure that proposed protected areas are gazetted and adequately protected.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Eurylaimus steerii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22698738A38104197. . Downloaded on 28 November 2015.
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