Pelecanoides garnotii 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Procellariiformes Procellariidae

Scientific Name: Pelecanoides garnotii (Lesson, 1828)
Common Name(s):
English Peruvian Diving-petrel, Peruvian Diving Petrel, Peruvian Diving-Petrel
Pelecanoides garnoti ssp. garnoti (Lesson, 1828) — Collar and Andrew (1988)
Taxonomic Source(s): Brooke, M. de L. 2004. Albatrosses and Petrels Across the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Identification information: 22 cm. Small plump, black-and-white petrel that flies low and fast on whirring wings. Mostly blackish above and dull white below, with white tips to scapulars forming pale stripe. Browner face and sides to neck. Dusky sides to breast. Similar spp. Magellanic Diving-petrel P. magellani has white fringes to upperpart feathers and characteristic white half-collar extending from throat behind eye to rear of crown.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B2ab(iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Brooke, M. & Howell, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Anderson, O., Bird, J., Calvert, R., Capper, D., Clay, R., Lascelles, B. & Stuart, T.
This species has an extremely small occupied breeding range on four islands. All subpopulations are declining and some rapidly. It consequently qualifies as Endangered.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Pelecanoides garnotii formerly bred on offshore islands from Isla Lobos de Tierra, Peru, to Isla Chiloé, Chile. It was numerous (e.g. c.100,000 pairs, and perhaps more, on Isla Chañaral, Chile, in 1938 [Vilina 1992]), but has declined significantly. In Peru, there were c.12,000-13,000 pairs on San Gallán and La Vieja Islands in 1995-1996 (Jahncke and Goya 1998). This is considerably higher than the c.1,500 individuals estimated in the early 1990s, probably because of improved information rather than an actual increase. In May-Aug 2010 a new survey of La Vieja Islands documented 102,343 active nests (c. 95% on La Vieja), of which 36,450 were occupied, indicating at least a three-fold increase in pairs since 1996, and possibly significantly more (C. Zavalaga in litt. 2010). Two small colonies were found on Corcovado Island, Peru in 2005, extending the current breeding distriubtion c.700 km north of La Vieja, its main breeding centre (Valverde 2006). A colony may also be present again on the Lobos de Afuera Islands where two individuals were sighted in 2003 and 2004 (Figueroa and Stucchi 2008). In Chile, 220 nests were found on Isla Pan de Azúcar in the late 1980s, where 500+ were seen offshore in November 1993 (S. N. G. Howell in litt. 1999), and 300 nests were reported on Isla Choros in the late 1980s, which had increased to an estimated 1,550 active nests in 2001-2003 (Simeone et al. 2003). It has been recorded throughout the year near Isla Chañaral, and may still breed there or on small islands to the south (Vilina 1992).

Countries occurrence:
Chile; Peru
Present - origin uncertain:
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:27Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:2420000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Number of Locations:4Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:NoLower elevation limit (metres):100
Upper elevation limit (metres):100
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:In Peru, there were c.12,000-13,000 pairs on San Gallán and La Vieja Islands in 1995-1996; these numbers are supplemented by additional, though small, colonies off Chile.

Trend Justification:  The species is detrimentally affected by a number of threatening processes: guano extraction and exploitation for food, predation by introduced rats and dogs on breeding islands, incidental bycatch at sea and increasing frequency of El Niño Southern Oscillation events.

Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
No. of subpopulations:4Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It excavates deep burrows in thick guano for nesting, but may also burrow in sandy soils or use natural rock-crevices. Breeding has been recorded throughout the year (Riveros-Salcedo and Jahncke Aparicio 1990, Jahncke and Goya 1998), with least activity in November. There are two breeding periods, with some evidence that individual birds breed twice annually (Riveros-Salcedo and Jahncke Aparicio 1990, Jahncke and Goya 1998, M. de L. Brooke verbally 2000). In the non-breeding season, it occurs close to breeding islands in the rich upwelling waters of the Humboldt Current. In Peru, it feeds, even in heavily fished areas, on small crustaceans and small fish (mostly larvae) (Jahncke et al. 1999). At La Vieja Island, Peru, Peruvian anchovy Engraulis ringens (33.9%), the small krill Euphausia mucronata (26.8%) and squat lobster Pleuroncodes monodon (24.3%) were the most important prey species (García-Godos and Goya 2006). High monthly variability in the main prey suggests an opportunistic feeding behaviour associated with prey avaliability (García-Godos and Goya 2006).

Systems:Terrestrial; Marine
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):11.7
Movement patterns:Full Migrant
Congregatory:Congregatory (and dispersive)

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Guano extraction is probably responsible for the massive historical declines. La Vieja is still harvested every 5-7 years, when the species is also exploited for food, but extraction and hunting are probably most significant on San Gallán (M. de L. Brooke in litt. 1999). It has been extirpated by introduced predators on Chañaral (foxes) (Vilina 1992), and probably San Lorenzo and El Frontón (rats and cats) (Jahncke et al. 1999). There are dogs on San Gallán and possibly rats on the Chilean breeding islands. Such predators probably prevent recolonisations. Heavy commercial fishing reduces food availability and causes mortality through incidental bycatch. These threats magnify the detrimental effects of natural predation and the increasingly frequent El Niño Southern Oscillation. At Choros, fishermen hunted European rabbits Oryctolagus cunniculus, usually by chasing them, potentially damaging burrows (Simeone et al. 2003). Disturbance from tourism and illegal landings is a problem at Choros (Simeone et al. 2003).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
All colonies are in reserves but only La Vieja has trained guards (Jahncke et al. 1999). There have been searches for additional colonies in Chile (Vilina 1992). In December 2009, 22 guano islands, 11 peninsulas (guano reserves) and adjacent waters, covering about 140,000 ha including 3 km offshore, were added to Peru’s national protected area system (Harrison 2009).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Address the complex issue of guano extraction (M. de L. Brooke in litt. 1999). Provide artificial burrows (M. de L. Brooke in litt. 1999). Control predators on breeding islands. Survey islands close to Corcovado Island, Peru with similar characterisitics for breeding sites (Valverde 2006). Establish permanent monitoring of the largest colony at La Vieja Island (García-Godos and Goya 2006).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Pelecanoides garnotii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22698280A93675706. . Downloaded on 22 April 2018.
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