||Great Shearwater, Greater Shearwater
Ardenna gravis gravis Christidis and Boles (2008)
Puffinus gravis (O'Reilly, 1818)
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
||Ardenna gravis (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Puffinus.
||47$cm. Large, distinctly capped shearwater, mainly of the Atlantic. Dark blackish brown cap and white hind-neck create capped appearance. Brown back, upperwing and rump; paler fringes to feathers produce scaled effect. White rear uppertail-coverts. Dark brown tail. White underparts except for variable brown belly patch (can be difficult to see). White underwing except for dark trailing edge and wingtip. Pink legs and feet but for black outer side to tarsus and outer toe. Dark grey bill. Similar spp. Cory's Shearwater Calonectris diomedea is less obviously capped and has paler bill plus more extensive dark area under the wing tip.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J. & Newton, P.
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2009 – Least Concern (LC)
- 2008 – Least Concern (LC)
- 2004 – Least Concern (LC)
- 2000 – Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
- 1994 – Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
- 1988 – Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
|Range Description:||This species breeds at three main sites: Nightingale and Inaccessible islands in the Tristan da Cunha group, and Gough Island, Tristan da Cunha (to UK) (Snow and Perrins 1998, Carboneras 1992d). Birds also breed in small numbers in the Falkland Islands (Malvinas), where the only confirmed site is Kidney Island (no more than 15 pairs recorded in 1987 (Woods 1988)), though there is a slight possibilty of breeding near Wineglass Hill, East Falkland, where one has been caught (Woods and Woods 1997).|
Bermuda; Brazil; Chile; Falkland Islands (Malvinas); France; Greenland; Guyana; Ireland; Martinique; Mexico; Portugal; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Spain (Canary Is.); United Kingdom; United States
Algeria; Angola (Angola); Australia; Barbados; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba; Cayman Islands; Curaçao; Denmark; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Gabon; Germany; Ghana; Gibraltar; Guadeloupe; Israel; Italy; Lebanon; Liberia; Morocco; Netherlands; Saint Lucia; Sao Tomé and Principe; Sint Maarten (Dutch part); Suriname; Sweden; Trinidad and Tobago; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.
Present - origin uncertain:
Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Argentina; Bahamas; Canada; Cape Verde; Côte d'Ivoire; Faroe Islands; French Guiana; Gambia; Grenada; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Iceland; Mauritania; Namibia; Norway; Puerto Rico; Saint Martin (French part); Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Senegal; Sierra Leone; South Africa; South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; Turks and Caicos Islands; Uruguay; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Western Sahara
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||60000000|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||600|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|