||Black Petrel, Black Petrel, Black (Parkinson's) Petrel
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
||46 cm. Large, black petrel, becoming more brown as plumage ages. Undersides of primaries may appear silvery. Yellow-white bill on adults, blue-white on juveniles, has black tip. Black legs, feet. Similar spp. Smallest Procellaria species. Smaller, especially bill, than Westland Petrel P. westlandica and has less laboured flight. Large, all-dark Flesh-footed Shearwater P. carneipes have pink feet and distinctive flight. Voice Varied calls at colony after dark.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Taylor, J.
||Bell, E., Debski, I., Taylor, G. & Weeber, B.
||Bird, J., Black, A., Calvert, R., Martin, R, Small, C., Taylor, J., Symes, A. & Anderson, O.
This species qualifies as Vulnerable because it breeds on just two very small islands where introduced predators are a potential threat. The population is assumed to be stable, but if a decline is detected, the species should be uplisted to Endangered.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2010 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2008 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2007 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2005 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2004 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2000 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1996 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1994 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1988 – Threatened (T)
|Range Description:||Procellaria parkinsoni breeds on Great and Little Barrier Islands, New Zealand, where the populations number c.1,300 pairs (E. A. Bell et al. 2009) and 100 pairs respectively, equating to a total population of c.5,000 individuals (Taylor 2000). The estimate of 1,300 pairs on Great Barrier Island is lower than previously thought but probably reflects improved information rather than a decline; however, it is not a complete survey and, although it covers the majority of the island's population, further research is needed to assess the true population size. It once bred in the mountains of the North and South Islands, but had disappeared from the mainland by the 1960s. On Little Barrier, it was abundant in the late 1800s but the population was decimated, mainly by feral cats, until predators were eradicated in 1980. On Great Barrier, the population may be in decline (Bell et al. 2011, E. Bell in litt. 2012). It migrates to the eastern Pacific Ocean between the Galápagos Islands, southern Mexico and northern Peru (Heather and Robertson 1997).|
Colombia; Cook Islands; Costa Rica; Ecuador; French Polynesia; Mexico; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Niue; Panama; Peru; Tonga
Present - origin uncertain:
El Salvador; French Southern Territories; Kiribati
|♦ Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:||70||♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||29900000|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Number of Locations:||2||♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||600|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The total population is c.1,300 pairs on Great Barrier Island and c.100 breeding pairs on Little Barrier Island (Bell et al. 2011), with an estimated total of c.5,000 individuals including non-breeding birds. This is roughly equivalent to 3,300 mature individuals.|
Trend Justification: Overall, declines may have occurred in the global population over the past three generations because on Little Barrier the population was reduced by predation to only 50-100 pairs. On Great Barrier, the population is thought to be stable (Marchant and Higgins 1990, Taylor 2000), and a slow increase is suspected on Little Barrier.
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|♦ Number of mature individuals:||3300||♦ Continuing decline of mature individuals:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations:||No||♦ Population severely fragmented:||No|
|♦ No. of subpopulations:||2||♦ Continuing decline in subpopulations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:||No||♦ All individuals in one subpopulation:||No|