|Scientific Name:||Bulweria bulwerii|
|Species Authority:||(Jardine & Selby, 1828)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Calvert, R., Ekstrom, J., Newton, P.|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species is pantropical, being found in all three oceans outside the breeding season. Breeding sites include the eastern Atlantic from the Azores, Portugal to Cape Verde, and the Pacific from eastern China and the Bonin Islands (Japan), east to the Hawaiian Islands (USA), and the Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia) (del Hoyo et al. 1992).|
Native:Cape Verde; China; French Guiana; French Polynesia; Indonesia; Japan; Kiribati; Malaysia; Marshall Islands; Mauritania; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Morocco; Northern Mariana Islands; Palau; Portugal; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Senegal; Spain (Canary Is.); Taiwan, Province of China; Timor-Leste; United States (Hawaiian Is.); United States Minor Outlying Islands
Vagrant:Australia; Barbados; France; India; Ireland; Italy; Maldives; Netherlands; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Trinidad and Tobago
Present - origin uncertain:American Samoa (American Samoa); Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Brazil; British Indian Ocean Territory; Cambodia; Christmas Island; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Cook Islands; Côte d'Ivoire; Dominica; Ecuador; Fiji; French Southern Territories; Gambia; Guadeloupe; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Liberia; Madagascar; Martinique; Mauritius; Mexico; Nauru; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Pitcairn; Réunion; Saint Lucia; Samoa; Sao Tomé and Principe; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Solomon Islands; Somalia; Suriname; Thailand; Tokelau; Tonga; Tuvalu; Viet Nam; Wallis and Futuna; Western Sahara
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Brooke (2004) estimated the global population to number c.500,000-1,000,000 individuals, while national population estimates include: c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in China; < c.100 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Taiwan and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Japan (Brazil 2009). The European population is estimated at 6,100 pairs, which equates to 12,100 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).|
Trend Justification: The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats. The European population trend is unknown (BirdLife International 2015).
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is marine and higly pelagic, usually being found far from land except during the breeding season. Its diet comprises mainly of fish and squid, with minor proportions of crustaceans and sea-striders, feeding largely at night by surface-seizing. The breeding season begins in April or May, with individuals forming colonies in a wide variety of habitats on offshore islands. Nests can be burrows, crevices, cracks or caves, under debris or vegetation cover (del Hoyo et al. 1992).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||23.9|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|
|Major Threat(s):||The following information refers to the species's European range only: Predation by cats, rats and endemic invertebrates occurs at breeding colonies in the North East Atlantic (Cabral et al. 2005, Matias et al 2009). A large colony in Desertas Island (Madeira) suffers intense human exploitation for food or fish bait, which also occurs in other North East Atlantic sites although not in the Salvage Islands (Madeira), since the declaration of the islands as a national park (Carboneras et al. 2014). Light pollution at night might be important cause of mortality in some areas. Habitat loss at colony sites is also considered a threat to this species in the Canary Islands, Madeira and Azores (Carboneras et al. 2014). The species is vulnerable to oil spills and marine pollution. It is at risk of being caught as bycatch in fishing gear including pelagic longlines (Waugh et al. 2012).|
Conservation Actions Underway
The species is listed under Appendix II of the Bern Convention, and under Annex I of the EU Birds Directive. In Europe it is currently listed as occurring in 26 marine Important Bird Areas. In the EU it is listed within 23 Special Protection Areas.
Conservation Actions Proposed
The following information refers to the species's European range only: Ongoing management and eradication of invasive predators at breeding colonies; enforcement and regulation of human exploitation; mitigation and reduction of light pollution from shipping and human settlements; bycatch monitoring on board vessels and reduction and mitigation on fishing vessels where appropriate.
|Amended reason:||Map revised.|
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2017. Bulweria bulwerii. (amended version published in 2016) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T22698132A110670540.Downloaded on 23 July 2017.|
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