||Snares Penguin, Snares Islands Penguin, Snares Crested Penguin
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
||Eudyptes pachyrhynchus and E. robustus (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) are retained as separate species contra Christidis and Boles (2008) who include robustus as a subspecies of E. pachyrhynchus.
||60 cm. Medium-sized, yellow-crested, black-and-white penguin. Dark blue-black upperparts, head, neck. White underparts. Bright yellow, thin stripe from above eye to form drooping, bushy crest behind eye. Bare pink skin at base of large red-brown bill. Similar spp. Erect-crested Penguin E. sclateri is taller with erectile, bushy crests. Fiordland Penguin E. pachyrhynchus lacks pink bare skin at base of bill, crest feathers usually shorter, whitish stripes often on cheeks.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Bell, B., Hiscock, J., Houston, D., Mattern, T., McClelland, P. & Weeber, B.
||Allinson, T, Benstead, P., Calvert, R., Mahood, S., McClellan, R., Taylor, J.
This species is classified as Vulnerable because it is restricted to one extremely small island group and hence is susceptible to stochastic events and human activities. Population trends are not clear, but if it is shown to be undergoing any decline, as is happening in some congeners, the species should be uplisted to Critically Endangered.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2010 – Vulnerable (VU) –
- 2008 – Vulnerable (VU) –
- 2005 – Vulnerable (VU) –
- 2004 – Vulnerable (VU) –
- 2000 – Vulnerable (VU) –
- 1996 – Vulnerable (VU) –
- 1994 – Vulnerable (VU) –
- 1988 – Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc) –
|Range Description:||Eudyptes robustus breeds on the Snares Islands (3 km2), 200 km south of New Zealand. The population was estimated at 23,250 breeding pairs in 1985-1986; 19,000 on North-East Island, 3,500 on Broughton and 750 on the Western Chain islets. In 2000, 25,861 pairs were counted on North-East Island and 4,000 on Broughton (Amey et al. 2001). The 2008 survey produced counts of 21,819 nests on North-East Island and 4,234 nests on Broughton, suggesting that the species had experienced a poor breeding year in line with that observed in the other seabird species present; a repeat survey in 2010 found 25,905 nests on North-East Island and 5,161 nests on Broughton (J. Hiscock in litt. 2012). The population is considered stable (J. Hiscock in litt. 2012). The wintering range is largely unknown, although occasional records from the waters off Tasmania and South Australia suggest a movement towards Australia (D. Houston in litt. 2008). |
Argentina; Falkland Islands (Malvinas)
Present - origin uncertain:
|♦ Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:||3||♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||3|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Number of Locations:||1||♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||70|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||A survey in 2010 found 25,905 nests on North-East Island and 5,161 nests on Broughton (J. Hiscock in litt. 2012), suggesting that there are c.31,000 pairs, or c.62,000 mature individuals. This is assumed to equate to a total population of c.93,000 individuals.|
Trend Justification: Surveys suggest that the population is stable or perhaps increasing (Amey et al. 2001, Mattern et al. 2009, J. Hiscock in litt. 2012).
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|♦ Number of mature individuals:||62000||♦ Continuing decline of mature individuals:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations:||No||♦ Population severely fragmented:||No|
|♦ No. of subpopulations:||1||♦ Continuing decline in subpopulations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:||No||♦ All individuals in one subpopulation:||Yes|
|♦ No. of individuals in largest subpopulation:||100|