Leptoptilos crumenifer 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Ciconiiformes Ciconiidae

Scientific Name: Leptoptilos crumenifer
Species Authority: (Lesson, 1831)
Common Name(s):
English Marabou, Marabou
French Marabout d'Afrique
Leptoptilos crumeniferus
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Malpas, L.
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2009 Least Concern (LC)
2008 Least Concern (LC)
2004 Least Concern (LC)
2000 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1994 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1988 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Countries occurrence:
Angola (Angola); Benin; Botswana; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Djibouti; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Kenya; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Mozambique; Namibia; Niger; Nigeria; Rwanda; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Somalia; South Africa; South Sudan; Sudan; Swaziland; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Uganda; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Israel; Liberia; Spain
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 12900000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Current Population Trend: Increasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Behaviour This species is sedentary or locally nomadic (Hancock et al. 1992, del Hoyo et al. 1992). Populations in the north and south generally move towards the equator after breeding and other populations making dispersive movements in relation to water availablity (del Hoyo et al. 1992) or prey abundance (Hancock et al. 1992). In the tropics the species begins to breed in the dry season, but in the equatorial zone the timing of breeding is more variable (del Hoyo et al. 1992). It breeds in colonies numbering from 20-60 up to several thousand pairs and often nests with other species (del Hoyo et al. 1992). When not breeding the species often remains gregarious, feeding in groups and gathering at night in communal roosts of up to 1,000 individuals (Hancock et al. 1992). It may also associate with herds of large mammals in order to catch insects disturbed by their movements (del Hoyo et al. 1992). Habitat It inhabits open dry savannas, grasslands, swamps, riverbanks, lake shores and receding pools (del Hoyo et al. 1992) where fish are concentrated (Hancock et al. 1992), typically foraging in and around fishing villages (del Hoyo et al. 1992). Diet Its diet consists predominantly of carrion and scraps of fish discarded by humans as well as live fish, termites, locusts, frogs, lizards, snakes, rats, mice and birds (del Hoyo et al. 1992) (e.g. adult flamingoes Phoenicopterus spp.) (Brown et al. 1982). Breeding site The nest is constructed of sticks (del Hoyo et al. 1992) and is positioned 10-30 m above the ground in trees, on cliffs (del Hoyo et al. 1992) or on buildings in towns and villages (Brown et al. 1982). The species breeds colonially in single- or mixed-species groups (del Hoyo et al. 1992), usually in close proximity (less than 50-60 km) to a reliable food source (Hancock et al. 1992).
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 16.1
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant
Congregatory: Congregatory (and dispersive)

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Utilisation This species is hunted and traded at traditional medicine markets in Nigeria (Nikolaus 2001).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Leptoptilos crumenifer. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22697716A40249204. . Downloaded on 01 December 2015.
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