Anastomus lamelligerus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Ciconiiformes Ciconiidae

Scientific Name: Anastomus lamelligerus Temminck, 1823
Common Name(s):
English African Openbill, Openbill Stork
French Bec-ouvert africain
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Malpas, L.
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Countries occurrence:
Angola; Benin; Botswana; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Gabon; Ghana; Kenya; Liberia; Madagascar; Malawi; Mali; Mozambique; Namibia; Niger; Nigeria; Rwanda; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Somalia; South Africa; South Sudan; Sudan; Swaziland; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Uganda; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Equatorial Guinea; Mauritania
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:22800000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Behaviour This species is an intra-African trans-equatorial migrant (del Hoyo et al. 1992) making movements that are triggered by the rains (Hancock et al. 1992). It breeds during in the rains when snails (its main prey items) are most readily available and nests in colonies of various sizes (del Hoyo et al. 1992) often with other species (Hancock et al. 1992). Nesting may only occur in years when local food supplies are plentiful however, so may not occur regularly at the same site (Hancock et al. 1992). The species feeds in loose groups (Brown et al. 1982, Hancock et al. 1992) that may contain up to 50 well-dispersed individuals (flocks of over 7,000 may also occur in some seasons) (Hancock et al. 1992). It migrates in flocks (del Hoyo et al. 1992) and roosts communally in trees (Brown et al. 1982). Habitat The species inhabits freshwater wetlands (del Hoyo et al. 1992) with shallow waters and a large abundance of aquatic molluscs (Hancock et al. 1992) including marshes, swamps, rice-fields, flood-plains, the backwaters and margins of lakes or rivers (del Hoyo et al. 1992), ponds and streams (Hancock et al. 1992). It may also frequent moist savanna or burnt grassland as well as occasionally forest clearings (del Hoyo et al. 1992), coastal mudflats and mangrove swamps (Hancock et al. 1992). Diet In many regions the species may depend entirely upon molluscs (Hancock et al. 1992) such as aquatic snails (e.g. Pila spp. or Lanistes ovum) (del Hoyo et al. 1992) and freshwater mussels (Ampullaria spp.) (del Hoyo et al. 1992). Other prey items taken include frogs, crabs, worms, fish and insects (del Hoyo et al. 1992) (e.g. locusts and beetles) (Hancock et al. 1992). Breeding site The nest is a small platform of sticks and vegetation (del Hoyo et al. 1992) positioned in trees and bushes over water (Hancock et al. 1992, del Hoyo et al. 1992) (e.g. inundated in standing water on flood-plains) (Brown et al. 1982), or alternatively in reedbeds (del Hoyo et al. 1992). It nests colonially, often in mixed-species groups (Hancock et al. 1992).
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):12.3
Movement patterns:Full Migrant
Congregatory:Congregatory (and dispersive)

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species is threatened by habitat loss, entanglement in fishing lines and environmental pollution (e.g. pesticides applied to water for mosquito control) (Hockey et al. 2005). It also suffers from hunting, poaching and the destruction of breeding colonies by villagers on Madagascar (Hancock et al. 1992, del Hoyo et al. 1992). Utilisation The species is hunted and traded at traditional medicine markets in Nigeria (Nikolaus 2001).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Anastomus lamelligerus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22697664A93629238. . Downloaded on 22 June 2018.
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