Ixobrychus sturmii 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Pelecaniformes Ardeidae

Scientific Name: Ixobrychus sturmii (Wagler, 1827)
Common Name(s):
English Dwarf Bittern
French Blongios de Stürm
Ardeirallus sturmii sturmii Cramp and Simmons (1977-1994)
Taxonomic Source(s): Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Malpas, L., Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J.
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend is not known, but the population is not believed to be decreasing sufficiently rapidly to approach the thresholds under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size may be moderately small to large, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Countries occurrence:
Angola; Benin; Botswana; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Equatorial Guinea; Ethiopia; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; Kenya; Liberia; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Mozambique; Namibia; Nigeria; Rwanda; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Somalia; South Africa; South Sudan; Sudan; Swaziland; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Uganda; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Niger; Spain (Canary Is.)
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:22400000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Behaviour This species is an intra-African migrant, its movements related to changes in water level due to seasonal rainfall (del Hoyo et al. 1992). The breeding season is geographically variable but generally coincides with the rains (although the species may also breed early in the dry season) (Kushlan and Hancock 2005). It breeds solitarily or in small groups of a few dozen pairs, and hunts nocturnally alone or in pairs, sometimes also hunting by day if conditions are cloudy (del Hoyo et al. 1992). Habitat It uses a variety of habitats, but shows a preference for thickets and forests characterised by fluctuating water levels (Kushlan and Hancock 2005). It frequents the margins of freshwater rivers, streams, lakes, reservoirs, ponds and pools overhung with dense foliage (Kushlan and Hancock 2005), marshes with grasses or reeds, seasonally flooded areas, mangroves (Hancock and Kushlan 1984, del Hoyo et al. 1992), rice-fields, and open grassy swamps with bulrushes or papyrus (del Hoyo et al. 1992, Kushlan and Hancock 2005). Diet Its diet consists predominantly of grasshoppers and frogs, but it will also take water beetles, small fish, crabs, spiders and snails (Hancock and Kushlan 1984, del Hoyo et al. 1992, Kushlan and Hancock 2005). Breeding site The nest is a stick platform positioned 0.5-4 m high (Kushlan and Hancock 2005) on horizontal or hanging branches of trees and bushes (del Hoyo et al. 1992) that overhang water or stand in flooded areas (Hancock and Kushlan 1984).
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):4.1
Movement patterns:Full Migrant
Congregatory:Congregatory (and dispersive)

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Utilisation The species is hunted and traded at traditional medicine markets in Nigeria (Nikolaus 2001).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Ixobrychus sturmii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22697327A93608515. . Downloaded on 22 July 2018.
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