|Scientific Name:||Bubulcus ibis|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
Ardea ibis ibis Christidis and Boles (2008)
Ardea ibis ibis Christidis and Boles (1994)
Ardeola ibis ibis Stotz et al. (1996)
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Malpas, L., Symes, A., Ashpole, J|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
Native:Algeria; Angola (Angola); Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Argentina; Armenia (Armenia); Aruba; Australia; Azerbaijan; Bahamas; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Barbados; Belize; Benin; Bermuda; Bhutan; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (Saba, Sint Eustatius); Botswana; Brazil; Brunei Darussalam; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada; Cape Verde; Cayman Islands; Central African Republic; Chad; Chile; China; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Colombia; Comoros; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Costa Rica; Côte d'Ivoire; Cuba; Curaçao; Cyprus; Djibouti; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador (Galápagos - Introduced); Egypt; El Salvador; Equatorial Guinea; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Falkland Islands (Malvinas); France; French Guiana; Gabon; Gambia; Georgia; Ghana; Gibraltar; Greece; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guam; Guatemala; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Hong Kong; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Italy; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Kuwait; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Lebanon; Lesotho; Liberia; Libya; Macao; Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia; Maldives; Mali; Marshall Islands; Martinique; Mauritania; Mauritius; Mayotte; Mexico; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Montenegro; Montserrat; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Nepal; Netherlands; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Northern Mariana Islands; Oman; Pakistan; Palau; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Portugal; Puerto Rico; Qatar; Réunion; Romania; Russian Federation; Rwanda; Saint Barthélemy; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Martin (French part); Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Sao Tomé and Principe; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Serbia (Serbia); Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Sint Maarten (Dutch part); Somalia; South Africa; South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; South Sudan; Spain (Canary Is.); Sri Lanka; Sudan; Suriname; Swaziland; Syrian Arab Republic; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Togo; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Turks and Caicos Islands; Uganda; United Arab Emirates; United States (Georgia, Hawaiian Is. - Introduced); United States Minor Outlying Islands; Uruguay; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Viet Nam; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.; Western Sahara; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Introduced:British Indian Ocean Territory; Jamaica
Vagrant:Albania; Antarctica; Austria; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Christmas Island; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Finland; Germany; Hungary; Iceland; Ireland; Latvia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Malta; New Caledonia; Norfolk Island; Norway; Poland; Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Slovenia; Sweden; Switzerland; Tajikistan; United Kingdom; Uzbekistan
Present - origin uncertain:Afghanistan
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population is estimated to number 4,000,000-9,850,000 individuals. The European population is estimated at 76,100-92,300 pairs, which equates to 152,000-185,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). The population is therefore placed in the band 4,000,000-9,999,999 individuals.|
Trend Justification: The overall population trend is increasing, although some populations may be stable, decreasing or have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant decrease over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007) Note, however, that these surveys cover less than 50% of the species's range in North America. The European population is estimated to be decreasing by less than 25% in 24.3 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).
|Current Population Trend:||Increasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Behaviour Most populations of this species are partially migratory, making long-distance dispersive movements related to food resources in connection with seasonal rainfall (del Hoyo et al. 1992). Other populations (e.g. in north-east Asia and North America) are fully migratory (del Hoyo et al. 1992, Snow and Perrins 1998). The species breeds throughout the year in the tropics with different regional peaks (del Hoyo et al. 1992) depending on food availability (Kushlan and Hancock 2005). It breeds colonially, often with other species, in groups that number from a few dozen to several thousand pairs, even up to 10,000 pairs in Africa (del Hoyo et al. 1992). The nesting effort of the species is related to rainfall patterns, leading to an annual variation in productivity (Kushlan and Hancock 2005). Outside of the breeding season the species remains gregarious (Brown et al. 1982, del Hoyo et al. 1992), feeding in loose flocks of 10-20 individuals (Brown et al. 1982) and often gathering in flocks of hundreds or even thousands of individuals where food is abundant (del Hoyo et al. 1992). Nocturnal roosting sites in Africa commonly hold a few hundred to 2,000 individuals (Brown et al. 1982). The species is a diurnal feeder (del Hoyo et al. 1992) and commonly associates with native grazing mammals or domesticated livestock (Kushlan and Hancock 2005) and may follow farm machinery to capture disturbed prey (del Hoyo et al. 1992). Habitat The species inhabits open grassy areas such as meadows (del Hoyo et al. 1992), livestock pastures (Kushlan and Hancock 2005), semi-arid steppe (del Hoyo et al. 1992) and open savanna grassland subject to seasonal inundation (Kushlan and Hancock 2005), dry arable fields (del Hoyo et al. 1992), artificial grassland sites (e.g. lawns, parks, road margins and sports fields) (Kushlan and Hancock 2005), flood-plains (Hancock and Kushlan 1984), freshwater swamps, rice-fields, wet pastures (del Hoyo et al. 1992), shallow marshes (Kushlan and Hancock 2005), mangroves (Hancock and Kushlan 1984) and irrigated grasslands (with ponds, small impoundments, wells, canals, small rivers and streams) (Kushlan and Hancock 2005). It rarely occupies marine habitats or forested areas (del Hoyo et al. 1992) although in Australia it may enter woodlands and forests, and it shows a preference for freshwater (Marchant and Higgins 1990) although it may also use brackish or saline habitats (Kushlan and Hancock 2005). It occurs from sea-level up to c.1,500 m (Kushlan and Hancock 2005) or locally up to c.4,000 m (Peru) (del Hoyo et al. 1992). Diet Its diet consists primarily of insects such as locusts, grasshoppers (del Hoyo et al. 1992), beetles, adult and larval Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, dragonflies (Hancock and Kushlan 1984) and centipedes but worms (Brown et al. 1982), spiders (Hancock and Kushlan 1984), crustaceans, frogs, tadpoles, molluscs, fish, lizards, small birds, rodents and vegetable matter (e.g. palm-nut pulp) may also be taken (del Hoyo et al. 1992). Breeding site The nest is constructed of twigs and vegetation (Kushlan and Hancock 2005) and is positioned up to 20 m high in reedbeds (del Hoyo et al. 1992, Kushlan and Hancock 2005), marshes, mangroves, dense thickets (Kushlan and Hancock 2005), bushes or trees (del Hoyo et al. 1992, Kushlan and Hancock 2005), usually over or surrounded by water (Kushlan and Hancock 2005). The species nests colonially in single- or mixed-species groups with the nests placed close or touching (Snow and Perrins 1998). Management information The species can adversely affect the trees and bushes it uses for nesting, which may lead to the abandonment of the colony site if it is not managed (Kushlan and Hancock 2005).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||8.1|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|
|Major Threat(s):||Large colonies nesting in urban areas are perceived as a public nuisance and may be persecuted (e.g. by disturbance to prevent colony establishment, removal or direct killing) (Kushlan and Hancock 2005). In its breeding range the species is threatened by wetland degradation and destruction such as lake drainage for irrigation and hydroelectric power production (Armenia) (Balian et al. 2002), and in some parts of its range it is susceptible to pesticide poisoning (organophosphates and carbamates) (Kwon et al. 2004). Utilisation The species is hunted and traded at traditional medicine markets in Nigeria (Nikolaus 2001).|
Conservation Actions Underway
The species is not listed on priority lists of the Conventions.
Conservation Actions Proposed
The following information refers to the species's European range only: The species can adversely affect the trees and bushes it uses for nesting, which may lead to the abandonment of the colony site if it is not managed (Kushlan and Hancock 2005). Freshwater habitats need to be sustainably managed. Establish non-intrusion zones around colonies.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Bubulcus ibis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22697109A86454050.Downloaded on 28 June 2017.|
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