Leucocarbo campbelli ssp. campbelli (Filhol, 1878) — Turbott (1990)
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
||63 cm. Medium-sized, black-and-white cormorant. Black head, neck, lower back, rump, uppertail-coverts, all with metallic blue sheen. White chin, underparts. Pink feet. White patches on wings appear as bar when folded. Caruncles absent. Voice Male barks during courtship.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Kennedy, M., Moore, P. & Weeber, B.
||Benstead, P., Mahood, S., McClellan, R., Pilgrim, J., Taylor, J., Moreno, R.
This species is listed as Vulnerable because it has a very small breeding range which renders it susceptible to stochastic effects and human impacts. Population trends are unknown, but are assumed to be more or less stable.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2012 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2008 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2006 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2005 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2004 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2000 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1996 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1994 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1988 – Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
|Range Description:||Phalacrocorax campbelli is endemic to Campbell Island, New Zealand, and adjacent offshore islands and stacks. In 1975, the population was estimated at c.2,000 pairs and 8,000 birds (Marchant and Higgins 1990, Heather and Robertson 1997). However, the breeding season may be quite extended and not synchronous, and therefore the census may have underestimated numbers (P. Moore in litt. 1999), so the number of individuals may be a more reasonable reflection of the breeding population. Birds usually forage in seas within 10 km of the main island (Taylor 2000). |
|♦ Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:||10||♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||1000|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Number of Locations:||1||♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||In 1975, the population was estimated at c.2,000 pairs or 8,000 birds (Marchant and Higgins 1990, Heather and Robertson 1997). However, the breeding season may be quite prolonged and staggered between colonies, and therefore the census may have underestimated numbers (P. Moore in litt. 1999), so the number of individuals may be a more reasonable reflection of the breeding population. Nevertheless, a more up-to-date population estimate is required for this species.|
Trend Justification: In the absence of significant known threats, this species's population is suspected to be stable.
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|♦ Continuing decline of mature individuals:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations:||No||♦ Population severely fragmented:||No|
|♦ No. of subpopulations:||1||♦ Continuing decline in subpopulations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:||No||♦ All individuals in one subpopulation:||Yes|
|♦ No. of individuals in largest subpopulation:||100|