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Phalacrocorax campbelli 

Scope:Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_onStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Suliformes Phalacrocoracidae

Scientific Name: Phalacrocorax campbelli
Species Authority: (Filhol, 1878)
Common Name(s):
English Campbell Shag
Synonym(s):
Leucocarbo campbelli campbelli Turbott (1990)
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Identification information: 63 cm. Medium-sized, black-and-white cormorant. Black head, neck, lower back, rump, uppertail-coverts, all with metallic blue sheen. White chin, underparts. Pink feet. White patches on wings appear as bar when folded. Caruncles absent. Voice Male barks during courtship.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable D2 ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Moore, P. & Weeber, B.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Mahood, S., McClellan, R., Pilgrim, J., Taylor, J.
Justification:
This species is listed as Vulnerable because it has a very small breeding range which renders it susceptible to stochastic effects and human impacts. Population trends are unknown, but are assumed to be more or less stable.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Vulnerable (VU)
2006 Vulnerable (VU)
2005 Vulnerable (VU)
2004 Vulnerable (VU)
2000 Vulnerable (VU)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Vulnerable (VU)
1988 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Phalacrocorax campbelli is endemic to Campbell Island, New Zealand, and adjacent offshore islands and stacks. In 1975, the population was estimated at c.2,000 pairs and 8,000 birds (Marchant and Higgins 1990, Heather and Robertson 1997). However, the breeding season may be quite extended and not synchronous, and therefore the census may have underestimated numbers (P. Moore in litt. 1999), so the number of individuals may be a more reasonable reflection of the breeding population. Birds usually forage in seas within 10 km of the main island (Taylor 2000).

Countries occurrence:
Native:
New Zealand
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2: 10
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 10
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Number of Locations: 1
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: In 1975, the population was estimated at c.2,000 pairs or 8,000 birds (Marchant and Higgins 1990, Heather and Robertson 1997). However, the breeding season may be quite prolonged and staggered between colonies, and therefore the census may have underestimated numbers (P. Moore in litt. 1999), so the number of individuals may be a more reasonable reflection of the breeding population. Nevertheless, a more up-to-date population estimate is required for this species.



Trend Justification:  In the absence of significant known threats, this species's population is suspected to be stable.
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
No. of subpopulations: 1 Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: Yes
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation: 100

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It nests in inaccessible colonies of up to 150 nests on exposed rocky ledges or in sea caves. The oldest bird known lived for over 13 years (Heather and Robertson 1997).

Systems: Terrestrial; Marine
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 8.7
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Historically, cattle and sheep may have restricted possible expansion of some colonies. Feral cats are believed to have little impact on the species (Taylor 2000), and recent observations and surveys suggest they may have died out on Campbell Island (P. Moore in litt. 1999). Brown rat Rattus norvegicus has recently been eradicated from the island but was thought to have little or no effect on breeding success (Taylor 2000, BBC 2003). The native Brown Skua Catharacta lonnbergi is a predator of eggs (P. Moore in litt. 1999).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
The Campbell Island group is a nature reserve and, in 1998, was declared part of a World Heritage Site. Cattle, sheep and rats have been eradicated since the 1980s (P. Moore in litt. 1999, Taylor 2000, BBC 2003).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Census the entire breeding population in the next five years and compare to the 1975 census. Turn the World Heritage Site territorial sea (out to 12 nautical miles) into a marine reserve and restrict all fishing (B. Weeber in litt. 2000).


Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Phalacrocorax campbelli. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22696840A40271835. . Downloaded on 01 May 2016.
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