Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Suliformes Phalacrocoracidae

Scientific Name: Phalacrocorax varius
Species Authority: (Gmelin, 1789)
Common Name(s):
English Great Pied Cormorant, Pied Cormorant, Australian Pied Cormorant, Pied Shag
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Calvert, R.
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend is not known, but the population is not believed to be decreasing sufficiently rapidly to approach the thresholds under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size may be moderately small to large, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2009 Least Concern (LC)
2008 Least Concern (LC)
2004 Least Concern (LC)
2000 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1994 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1988 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is found exclusively on Australia and New Zealand, wintering along the whole coast and inland in both countries. It breeding exclusively on the north island of New Zealand, with scattering breeding site, mostly coastal, in Australia (del Hoyo et al. 1992).
Countries occurrence:
Australia; New Zealand
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 4410000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Current Population Trend: Unknown
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is mostly marine, especially is western Australia, but occupies a variety of water bodies both offshore, on the coast and inland. Fish comprise roughly 90% of the body and weight of its diet, but it will also feed on crustaceans, including prawns, shrimps and crabs, and a few molluscs and cephalopods. It feeds exclusively by pursuit-diving and often forms feeding flocks at sea. Its breeding season varies considerably with region and year depending on local conditions, generally forming colonies in a variety of habitats. Adults are basically sedentary, with juveniles performing fairly extensive dispersal (del Hoyo et al. 1992)
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 8.7
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant
Congregatory: Congregatory (and dispersive)

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Phalacrocorax varius. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22696782A40320157. . Downloaded on 09 October 2015.
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