Falco jugger 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Falconiformes Falconidae

Scientific Name: Falco jugger Gray, 1834
Common Name(s):
English Laggar Falcon
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Harris, C., Naoroji, R., Prasad, A., Sharma, S., Susanth, C. & Thompson, P.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Mahood, S., Taylor, J., Westrip, J.
Trends in this species's population are poorly documented; however, it probably has a moderately small population that is suspected to be undergoing a moderately rapid population reduction, both owing to pesticide use and incidental capture by trappers targeting Saker Falcon Falco cherrug.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Falco jugger occurs in the Indian Subcontinent from extreme south-east Iran, south-east Afghanistan, and Pakistan, through India (from the Himalayan foothills south to northern Kerala and northern Tamil Nadu), Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and north-west Myanmar. In Bangladesh, since the 1980s it has been recorded at only three locations in the northeast and northwest (Siddiqui et al. 2008); there are no breeding records, and it may only be a vagrant (P. Thompson in litt. 2016). The species's range has been estimated to cover 4.2 million km2 (Ferguson-Lees et al. 2001). In the 1960s the species was "the commonest of all [the region's] falcons" (Ali and Ripley 1978), but is now declining rapidly (Ali and Ripley 1987). In the 1970s, a total population of 10,000-25,000 pairs was suggested (Cade 1982). Now, the total population may still number more than 10,000 birds, although is perhaps not much more (Ferguson-Lees et al. 2001).

Countries occurrence:
Afghanistan; India; Myanmar; Nepal; Pakistan
Bangladesh; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Kazakhstan; Viet Nam
Present - origin uncertain:
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:4120000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:In the 1970s the global population was estimated at 10,000-25,000 pairs by Cade (1982). The total population may still number more than 10,000 birds, although there are perhaps not many more), thus it is placed in the band 10,000-19,999 mature individuals. This equates to 15,000-29,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 15,000-30,000 individuals.

Trend Justification:  A moderately rapid and on-going population decline is suspected on the basis of rates of habitat degradation, pesticide use and capture.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:10000-19999Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It is mostly found from sea-level to 1,000 m in dry open woodland and open country with scattered trees (Ferguson-Lees et al. 2001).

Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):6.2
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Declines have been noted in Pakistan and north-west India, perhaps from spreading cultivation and pesticides, and the species is scarce in Nepal and Bangladesh. In Pakistan at least, the species is threatened by trapping for Saker Falcons Falco cherrug - Laggar Falcons themselves are apparently not prized for falconry (Ali and Ripley 1987). The main threat, given the presumed susceptibility of the species to pesticides, is the intensification of pesticide use in the region, e.g. there was a seven-fold increase in pesticide use in Pakistan between 1981 and 1992 (Movalli 2000).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
It breeds in Tal Chhapar Wildlife Sanctuary, Rajasthan, India.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey to assess the size of the population. Regularly monitor the population at selected sites across its range. Restrict the use of pesticides and make local people aware of their impacts on the local wildlife. Enforce the legal protection afforded to the Saker Falcons, to the benefit of this species as well. Determine the level of capture of this species and its affects on population levels. Conduct local education programmes to discourage falcon catching.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Falco jugger. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22696492A93568123. . Downloaded on 14 December 2017.
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