|Scientific Name:||Falco biarmicus|
|Species Authority:||Temminck, 1825|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Khwaja, N.|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over 10 years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in 10 years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Native:Albania; Algeria; Angola (Angola); Armenia (Armenia); Azerbaijan; Benin; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Croatia; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Gambia; Georgia; Ghana; Greece; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Italy; Jordan; Kenya; Kuwait; Lebanon; Lesotho; Liberia; Libya; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Montenegro; Morocco; Mozambique; Namibia; Niger; Nigeria; Oman; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Russian Federation; Rwanda; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Serbia (Serbia); Sierra Leone; Somalia; South Africa; South Sudan; Spain (Canary Is. - Vagrant); Sudan; Swaziland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Tunisia; Turkey; Uganda; Western Sahara; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Vagrant:Congo; Cyprus; Czech Republic; France; Gabon; Gibraltar; Malta; Portugal; Romania; Slovakia; United Arab Emirates
Present - origin uncertain:Qatar
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Behaviour Most birds are resident although some migrate locally in West Africa, and nomadism is recorded in the east and south-west of its range (del Hoyo et al. 1994, Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). Flight is often low over the ground (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). Birds are usually recorded singly or in pairs, but are known gather in groups of up to 20 at concentrated feeding sites (del Hoyo et al. 1994, Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). The species is often crepuscular and possibly even nocturnal (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Habitat It inhabits a wide variety of habitats, from lowland deserts to forested mountains, and is recorded up to 5,000 m (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Diet Small birds make up most of its diet, particularly quails, pigeons and doves (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Breeding site Birds usually use the abandoned nests of other raptors, corvids or herons on trees and pylons (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Management information In Africa the species has been shown to benefit from bush clearance and higher populations of free-range poultry, which it hunts (del Hoyo et al. 1994).
In the mid-20th century the species underwent severe declines in Europe and Israel, driven by poisoning, shooting and trapping for falconry (del Hoyo et al. 1994). These have subsided, though persecution and the collection of eggs and chicks for falconry still probably constitute the most serious threats to the species, and in Italy it is still threatened by illegal shooting (Snow and Perrins 1998, Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). Local declines in southern Africa have possibly been associated with seed dressings, and whilst the overall effects of pesticides are unknown they have been shown to have negative impacts locally (del Hoyo et al. 1994). It is also vulnerable to the effects of potential wind energy development (Strix 2012).
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2013. Falco biarmicus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 07 July 2015.|
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