||Javan Hawk-eagle, Javan Hawk-Eagle
||Aguila-azor de Java
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
||Spizaetus nanus, S. lanceolatus, S. philippensis, S. pinskeri, S. nipalensis, S. alboniger and S. bartelsi (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) and S. cirrhatus and S. floris (Gjershaug et al. 2004) have been transferred into the genus Nisaetus following Haring et al. (2006). S. africanus and Hieraaetus fasciatus (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) have both been transferred into Aquila, also following Haring et al. (2006); and H. kienerii (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) has been transferred into the resurrected genus Lophotriorchis. The BirdLife Taxonomic Working Group is aware that phylogenetic analyses have been published which have proposed moving H. pennatus into Aquila but as not all published studies are concordant we prefer not to take a decision on this until cladogenesis of the 'booted eagles' has been resolved.
||60 cm. Medium-sized, forest-dwelling eagle. Crown and moustachial of adult are black, long crest (often held almost vertically) is black, tipped white. Chestnut sides of head and nape, dark brown back and wings, brown long tail, barred black. Creamy-white throat with dark mesial stripe. Rest of underparts whitish, barred rufous. Immature is similar, but with plainer underparts and duller head. Similar spp. Changeable Hawk-eagle Spizaetus cirrhatus lacks rufous cheeks and long crest. Crested Honey-buzzard Pernis ptilorhynchus is smaller with a shorter crest, uneven tail-barring and less rufous in plumage. Rufous-bellied Eagle Hieraaetus kienerii has shorter crest and extensive white upper breast streaked black.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||van Balen, B.
||Benstead, P., Bird, J., Khwaja, N., Taylor, J. & Tobias, J.
The population of this impressive raptor is very small. Moreover, given the destruction, disturbance and degradation that is currently being inflicted on its preferred habitat, it is likely to be declining and increasingly fragmented, a circumstance that qualifies it as Endangered.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2008 – Endangered (EN) –
- 2004 – Endangered (EN) –
- 2000 – Endangered (EN) –
- 1996 – Endangered (EN) –
- 1994 – Endangered (EN) –
- 1988 – Threatened (T) –
Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. Several surveys have targeted the species, exploring its distribution and ecology (Prawiradilaga 2006). Strict legislation protects it from hunting or trading, although this is often ineffective. It occurs in several protected areas, including Gunung Halimun, Gunung Gede-Pangrango and Meru Betiri National Parks, although these still face serious problems. An action plan has been compiled and conservation awareness programmes including several training and awareness raising workshops have been initiated (Prawiradilaga 2006, Narwatha et al. 2007). Project Garuda, which ran in 2002-2003 in Butahu, West Java, combined research with conservation activities implementing an extensive awareness raising programme including radio broadcasts, school visits and an exhibition (Narwatha et al. 2007). A nest protection programme involving local communities has been run successfully (Prawiradilaga 2006). Regular monitoring occurs in Telaga Warner Nature Reserve, Gede-Pangrango National Park and parts of G. Halimum-Salak National Park (Prawiradilaga 2006) and surveys took place around Butahu in 2002-2003 (Narwatha et al. 2007). A captive breeding programme has been underway since 1996, although as of 2006 it had failed to produce any offspring (Nijmal et al. 2009).
Conservation Actions Proposed
Implement the Javan Hawk-eagle Recovery Plan. Continue ecological studies to allow appropriate management regimes to be devised. Improve management of existing protected areas, and establish further reserves, particularly in central Java, at Dieng Mountains and Gunung Slamet, and West Java in southern Cianjur district. Manage these protected areas as an established and connected network of sites, with the help of local stakeholders. Focus future population surveys on areas predicted but not confirmed to hold populations of the species (Syartinilia and Tsuyuki 2008). Continue to search for and guard nests found near human populations. Improve and enforce legislation to control trade. Continue and expand education schemes to elicit public support for the conservation of this and other threatened species on Java.