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Aquila rapax

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA AVES ACCIPITRIFORMES ACCIPITRIDAE

Scientific Name: Aquila rapax
Species Authority: (Temminck, 1828)
Common Name(s):
English Tawny Eagle, Tawny Eagle and Steppe Eagle
French Aigle ravisseur

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2013-11-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Harding, M.
Justification:
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
History:
2012 Least Concern

Geographic Range [top]

Countries:
Native:
Algeria; Angola (Angola); Benin; Botswana; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea-Bissau; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Kenya; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Morocco; Mozambique; Namibia; Nepal; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Rwanda; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Somalia; South Africa; South Sudan; Sudan; Swaziland; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Uganda; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Vagrant:
Bangladesh; Egypt; Gibraltar; Israel; Italy; Lesotho; Liberia; Oman; Sierra Leone; Thailand; Tunisia
Present - origin uncertain:
Djibouti; Guinea; Myanmar; Viet Nam
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:


Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:

Behaviour The species is resident across the Afrotropical, Indomalayan and fringing Palearctic regions (34°N to 31°S) but occurs in discrete populations. It is common across its range, and generally sedentary, although individuals are nomadic and will occasionally wander long distances.  In West Africa individuals will make short distance seasonal movements south into the damper woodlands during October – November and return in April (Ferguson- Lees and Christie, 2001). Habitat The species occupies dry open habitats from sea level to 3000m, and will occupy both woodland and wooded savannah.  In India it can be found near cultivated areas, settlements and slaughterhouses (Ferguson- Lees and Christie, 2001). Diet The species has a wide prey base, taking mammals, birds, reptiles, insects, and occasionally fish and amphibians.  It will also regularly consume carrion and pirate other raptors’ prey (Ferguson- Lees and Christie, 2001). Breeding Site Nesting occurs on a large stick platform that may also incorporate animal bones, and is located on top of tall isolated trees or occasionally on top of a pylon. The breeding season in Africa spans March to August in the north, October to June in the West, April to January in central and southern areas, and year-round (but mainly May-November) in Kenya. In India the season spans November to August (Ferguson- Lees and Christie, 2001).

Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species has declined in the farmed areas of eastern and southern Africa, apparently as a result of consuming poisoned carcasses. In western and northeast Africa declines have been reported but the causes are not known. In general the species’ opportunistic behaviour suggests it is resistant to the usual threats (Ferguson- Lees and Christie, 2001; del Hoyo et al., 1994) although long term changes in rainfall patterns could affect the breeding success of the species in future (Wichmann et al., 2004).

Citation: BirdLife International 2013. Aquila rapax. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 September 2014.
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