|Scientific Name:||Morphnus guianensis|
|Species Authority:||(Daudin, 1800)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Benstead, P., Capper, D., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A. & Temple, H.|
This species is rare throughout its vast range, and is thought to be declining moderately rapidly owing to habitat loss and hunting. For this reason it is classified as Near Threatened.
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
|Range Description:||Morphnus guianensis is sparsely distributed throughout its extensive range from Guatemala through Belize, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Brazil, and east Andean Ecuador, Peru, Paraguay and Bolivia to north Argentina (Bierregaard 1994a, Bierregaard et al. 1995, Guyra Paraguay 2004).|
Native:Argentina; Belize; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil; Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; French Guiana; Guatemala; Guyana; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Suriname; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
|Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No|
|Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||9190000|
|Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||1200|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population is estimated to number 1,000-10,000 individuals, roughly equating to 670-6,700 mature individuals.
Trend Justification: This species is suspected to lose 29.8-47% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (54 years) based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). However, the rate of loss outside Amazonia is likely to be lower (A. Lees in litt 2011), so the species is therefore suspected to decline by 25-30% over three generations.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It occurs in lowland tropical and subtropical forest, including gallery forest in the south of its range, typically below 600 m but locally up to 1,200 m (Bierregaard 1994a, Parker et al. 1996).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||18|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||Its large size and low population densities make it particularly vulnerable to hunting (Bierregaard 1994a, Bierregaard et al. 1995). Deforestation is a severe problem, with many old records from now deforested parts of the Chocó region in north-west Colombia (Bierregaard 1994a, Bierregaard et al. 1995). Similarly extensive deforestation in parts of its Central American range suggest that local contractions of range or serious declines in population have already occurred (Bierregaard 1994a, Bierregaard et al. 1995). It presumably also suffers from competition with humans for prey (Galetti et al. 1997b).|
Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey and attempt to estimate population density and global population. Organise educational campaigns to reduce hunting pressure. Study its ability to persist in fragmented and degraded habitat.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2015. Morphnus guianensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T22695991A85060710. . Downloaded on 01 May 2016.|
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